“ The metropoliss which in the late 20th century we call universe metropoliss are get downing to take their lives instead distinct from those of their territorial provinces once more, and entities such as Singapore and Hong Kong may even propose that metropolis provinces can at least in some ways be feasible societal signifiers ” ( Hannerz, 1996 ) .
The above quotation mark was taken from “ Traditional Connections ” written by Hannerz in 1996. In this book, Hannerz examines the function of universe metropoliss in relation to modern-day globalisation. He believes that both Hong Kong and Singapore symbolize emerging new signifiers of cultural life and he what illustrates termed metropoliss of the “ planetary ecumene ” ( Hannerz, 1996 ) .
Singapore is an island with 63 environing islets, located at the Southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, North of the equator. The island of Singapore is separated from Malaysia and Indonesia by the Straits of Johor and Riau Islands. Previously what was a quiet fishing small town began to boom under British regulation over a century and a half ago. Once it started to boom, Singapore attracted many immigrants from its environing states. These immigrates from Southern and Eastern Asia came is hunt of chances and as a consequence settled in on the island, and as a consequence Singapore ‘s population is multiethnic. Not merely is Singapore a state, but it is besides a city state and more late, it is besides referred to as a universe metropolis.
Singapore received its independency from Britain in 1965, and since so it began developing into a modern-day modern state province. For the 37 old ages, continuing its independency under the regulation of the People ‘s Action Party ( PAP ) little changed. Simultaneously, Singapore began to progress, what started off as an export orientated economic system developed into an advanced industrial economic system which is presently perceived as a “ aspirant ” universe metropolis today. During this clip, non merely did the authorities market Singapore as a planetary metropolis, but it strived to progress and continue its national individuality among its citizens.
During the 1980 ‘s and 1990 ‘s many of the Asian provinces began to separate non merely their state cultural values but besides a sense of individuality. Singapore was one of the most vocal states when it came to Asiatic values. Following this, assorted inquiries arouse every bit good as challenges supporting the genuineness of the Asiatic values. At this clip, Asian was regarded as a part which was fleetly catching up and in some instances was even exceling the western universe when it came to the economic development and success. This success of the Asiatic part was referred to as the “ Asiatic Miracle ” which identified the shutting phases of America and Europe ‘s economic and cultural domination.
As the 1990 ‘s attack things were about to alter drastically for the Asiatic parts, it was the beginning of the economic crisis and as a consequence the Asiatic values debate came to an terminal. However, Singapore moved towards globalisation alternatively of prosecuting the conflict of Asiatic values. The issues raised over the old decennary stimulated the concerns which were faced with globalisation. In Singapore, globalisation was the focal point point and therefore this raised uncertainnesss as to how state provinces were covering with the patterned advance of globalisation.
Globalization is a procedure which has been apparent since 1980 by the transmutation of many major metropoliss in the universe. This patterned advance of globalisation has given the chances to such metropoliss to go more independent, but has besides given possibilities of these universe metropoliss including London, Tokyo, New York, Hong Kong and Singapore the opportunity to develop links taking to planetary webs. Harmonizing to Sassen, planetary metropoliss are host to important multinational corporations and fiscal, technological and confer withing services. However, one must oppugn the result of the globalisation procedure. It is apparent across several universe metropoliss, these metropoliss are all progressing in the same way. Many similarities exist in today ‘s universe metropoliss -city Centres, waterfront developments and skylines. Should universe metropoliss follow the same class? Is it appropriate that all metropoliss have indistinguishable characteristics or is it of import for such metropoliss to be alone? These are inquiries which are raised by the globalisation procedure. Globalization is an international procedure which is apparent in more topographic points than others and so its yesteryear or present impacts differ for each universe metropolis.
Singapore has been faced with its ain issues of globalisation ; hence many inquiries have to be asked. The Singaporeans have important questions related to the challenges of globalisation including the inquiry of national individuality and belonging, self-proclaimed planetary metropolis position and what is the overall experience of life in a globalized metropolis. These are all relevant issues which feature in the procedure of globalisation and it is from this that three of import impacts arise in the metropolis province of Singapore and they include:
One of the policy outcomes in relation to globalisation was The 1991 Next Lap -the intent of this scheme was aimed at “ traveling planetary ” . Over a 30 twelvemonth period Singapore experienced legion structural alterations including -moving off from its initial Entrepot economic system, followed by a low-tech fabrication and trading economic system and eventually a fiscal and concern services economic system for the 1980 ‘s. The concluding stage of alteration was so Singapore could vie at an international degree. This policy identifies Singapore ‘s positive moves towards transmutation and integrating of the metropolis province at the planetary economic degree. As the three stages evolved constellation transmutation and redefinition of the economic system, the authorities required to turn up Singapore as a strategic multinational node within the Asiatic part. The Singaporean authorities encouraged national concerns to set up in regional locations to spread out and so this advanced Singapore ‘s economic system on an international footing.
National Identity and Belonging:
During the 1990 ‘s the Singaporean authorities turned its attending to globalising the metropolis province to make a esthesis of place among its citizens. Singapore has been unable to maturate as a topographic point which has a national individuality and the sense of belonging. It is believed that this sense of belonging is separately orientated. The Singaporean Government have more so focussed on the economic development of the province as opposed to making a province which is spliting with an ambiance created through national individuality and belonging on a personal degree. The authorities have delivered what they perceive to be their reading of this “ national individuality and belonging ” through supplying it citizens with a material interest in the state. Unfortunately, it is the emotional facet of the state that has non yet been delivered to their citizens, and therefore these people are more likely to emigrate to states who can supply the emotional facet.
One of the notable attacks taken by the Singaporean authorities was their constructive attack to societal integrating. This attack consisted of the authorities endeavoring to determine the spacial forms of the assorted groups in society. By set abouting this pro active attack, the authorities felt that this would promote the possible job of societal polarization caused globalisation. The province has a huge impact on the lodging schemes -the citizens populating in homes which are regulated and managed by the authorities. An attack such as this leads to the authorities set uping the nature and allotment of lodging, while making a sense of ownership. This attack has determined that there is both an cultural and societal mix of citizens in each of the lodging development, as the province took this attack this eliminated societal polarization and gentrification.
The cardinal issues addressed above how Singapore has evolved and dealt with certain issues since the procedure of globalisation. It is evident that the above are connected and therefore have evolved from the patterned advance of globalisation which has been a world-wide issue. Globalization is a procedure which consists of negative and positive impacts all of which are apparent on a planetary footing. Each metropolis experiences more prevalent issues than others all of which reflect the international procedure of globalisation. However, it is evident that globalisation has had both positive and negative impacts on the metropolis province of Singapore.
Successful Cities can be interpreted otherwise by all persons. So what is a Successful City? In order for a metropolis to be a “ Successful City ” it is required to fulfill four constituents. These four factors include -economic success, places where people want to populate, civic coaction, positive image and pride in the metropolis. Many of today ‘s planetary metropoliss satisfy these four constituents, hence taking such metropoliss -New York, Tokyo, London, Hong Kong and Singapore to be referred to as a “ Successful City ” . Once these elements have been satisfied the planetary metropoliss encompass certain drivers to keep their metropolis at this successful criterion. Singapore appears to be a successful metropolis, so what drivers have led it to going one of these exultant planetary metropoliss? In entire, there are 10 drivers required to fulfill and make a successful metropolis and they include the undermentioned -diversity, good administration, skilled work force, quality of life, connectivity, physical reclamation, civilization of invention, business-friendly civilization, typical trade name and the city-region relationship. However, in Singapore the undermentioned drivers are really apparent and they include -quality of life, connectivity and skilled work force.
Quality of Life:
It is believed that the quality of life in Singapore is one of the best metropoliss in the universe to populate, work and drama. This widely distributed metropolis attracts many persons from Asia every bit good as other locations across the universe. And so this has lead to a diverseness of different civilizations, life styles and faith. This metropolis province of Singapore has lots to offer including safety, green countries, affectional and low-cost public conveyance, non burying its universe category wellness services and superior instruction systems. All of the above lead to a good quality of life supplying for its citizens in the best possible manner. The societal scene in Singapore is booming with its turning leisure and athletics scenes along with its lively entertaining and dark life scene and its dining and cordial reception. These cardinal factors place how the quality of life in Singapore is of such a high and international criterion. One can state that it is the above features that identify the turning success of the quality of life gettable in Singapore, and may be considered as the best in Asia.
Singapore has become one of Asia ‘s busiest international hubs due to its premier location on many air and sea paths. This has opened up Singapore ‘s international connectivity with other planetary and international metropoliss across the universe. The Maritime and Port Authority are one of the taking planetary port groups and they oversee Singapore ‘s Port. It is believed that about one fifth of the universe ‘s container cargos pass through the port of Singapore. The Port Authority of Singapore has connexions with 600 ports in 123 states, including 200 transportation lines and day-to-day seafarings to the major international ports. The port has won many awards including the “ Best Container Terminal ( Asia ) ” and “ Container Terminal Operator of the Year ” . Changi Airport was developed in 1981 and is presently managed by Changi Airport group. Since 1981, this airdrome has evolved to high international criterions and is one of the 6th busiest international airdromes in the universe, with three terminuss. This airdrome caters for 90 international air hoses, which serves 200 metropoliss in over 60 states. The one-year footstep of Changi Airport is about 37 million and is one of Singapore ‘s largest shopping locations. This footstep along with the day-to-day seafarings identifies the strength of Singapore ‘s international connectivity.
Skilled Work force:
The Singaporean work force comprises of assorted multi-cultural, extremely skilled educated and productive people. As English is one of the most widely spoken linguistic communications and which is besides the linguistic communication of concern, the authorities have encouraged the importance of talking good English so it can win as a planetary metropolis. A big proportion of the population are technology based and today this is spread outing along with the sum of skilled technicians. As there is an unfastened in-migration policy, this has benefitted and improved the Singaporean work force. There are besides significant preparation and scholarship programmes emerging through the authorities with the support of the many industry spouses and instruction constitutions. By making new educational programmes this ensures that the work force is prepared for the hereafter. Besides this has ensured that the work force is one of the best educated in the universe. The authorities ‘s investing in instruction has lead to the formation of an highly extremely skilled and educated work force.
These three elements have lead Singapore to going one of the most successful planetary metropoliss in the universe. This planetary metropolis gives the feeling that the 10 drivers for a successful metropolis exist accordingly this implies that none of the drivers need to be developed. Singapore appears to be a successful metropolis without any defects nevertheless, one can reason this point. How can a metropolis exist without defects? One of the chief elements which leads to a successful metropolis and which reflects a metropolis is the planning procedure.
Many sectors are involved in the planning procedure and these include -Urban Redevelopment Agency ( URA ) , the Economic Development Board ( EDB ) and eventually the private sector. These peculiar organic structures are requested for their input into authorities established commissions. It is the URA who collaborate the positions of commissions and ministries of authorities, it must be noted that the EDB are involved in the docket puting function. Once this process is complete, the URA interprets these policies into land-use and development footings. It is the authorities ‘s strong province control that is responsible for the land and the strategic land-use programs. A strategy which is widely in usage in Singapore is the “ Sale of Site ” system -this method has been at the bosom of the close coaction in urban development. This was foremost implemented in 1967 and entails the acquisition of sites by the authorities, under the Land Acquisition Act of 1966. Once the authorities have acquired the land it is consolidated and so sold on to private developers. At one point, the authorities along with its bureaus owned about 80 per centum of its lands through using the Sale of Site method. As the authorities were the biggest interest holders of land, they were able to act upon the type of development, location and graduated table, clip and the phasing of land release -leading to a strong connexion between the economic docket and the physical development of the metropolis. This strong clasp over land which the province possesses, guided the province in the way of development through belongings ventures which was assisted by authorities linked companies.
With the authorities and province holding such an influence on how the metropolis is developed one begins to inquiries how successful is Singapore? The three drivers discussed supra are apparent in the metropolis and so they do be, but on what degree are they successful? The city state seems to be ruled by the authorities and private sector so how can these people determine the demands of their citizens? These are inquiries which can merely be answered by the Singaporean authorities as it is them who presently determine the future function of the metropolis province. It is evident that local democracy plays an undistinguished function in the overall decision-making, nevertheless as the province has avoided corruptness this has facilitated its genuineness. The authorities obtain the citizens support through allowing economic prosperity along with high quality, subsidized, societal commissariats which include lodging and public lodging. It is true these methods and no other that the province of Singapore achieves the citizens support. By utilizing such methods, the state is unable to hold their voices and options ‘ heard and implemented. This emphasizes that the metropolis can non be genuinely successful without the populace ‘s support, obtained in a rational mode and non by supplying what the authorities and province assume the citizens require.
Each metropolis is typical, whether it is the location, edifice design, multicultural background or milieus. As Singapore is a state province, this is a really typical quality that non all states can associate to. A state province is “ a autonomous province of which most of the citizens or topics are united in, besides by factors which define a state, such as linguistic communication or common descent ” . This alone classifies as a typical feature of Singapore, however there are many diverse basicss which categorize a typical metropolis. In Singapore assorted descriptions are seeable and these include -land renewal, green zones, high-rise edifices and skyscrapers. It is these elements that highlight the features of Singapore and specify it as a metropolis.
The land renewal procedure was a consequence of the necessary commissariats to advance Singapore as a Central Business District ( CBD ) -this was a important portion of the planning procedure. Initially the CBD was located on the seashore and so it was possible to spread out the country required to beef up the bing CDB through land renewal. It was during the 1970 ‘s when the first land renewal procedure took topographic point retrieving 106 hectares. Once this was achieved it opened the land to international investing, encouraging universe category companies -ranging from the six-star Ritz Carlton Hotel, to shopping and an international base for taking companies. This rescued land besides attracted world-class designers to plan the alone architecture that is apparent in this peculiar territory helping in the urban selling. A 2nd stage of land renewal has occurred, repossessing 360 hectares at Marina South. This extension of the CBD is targeted at advancing incorporate working, life and diversion country to take to a good quality of life.
Many of the green zones are links which are formed are aimed at supplying connexions between colonies and along conveyance corridors. These green zones are associated with pulling concerns to Singapore -such green infinites include golf classs, beaches and pleasant scenes for lodging. Since the 1970 ‘s the aim has been to denominate Singapore as a Garden City through a tree planting programme every bit good as puting accent on the attractive route corridors and little Parkss. It is believed that this has guided the green zones in the way of a man-made and controlled environment. It is estimated that Singapore has 2,340 hectares of Parkss and green countries. During the 1970 ‘s a Garden City Action Committee was formed to keep 1 hectare of green infinite for every 1,000 people. By 2010 it is expected that 245 hectares of green corridors will link the green zones and nature militias on the island. This Garden City is good maintained and it is attributed to this, that Singapore has a huge sum of green zones.
High-rise Buildings and Skyscrapers:
The skyline of Singapore is comprised of high-rise edifices and skyscrapers, with a big bulk located at business district. There are about 4,300 completed tower block developments in the metropolis province. The first development of high-rise edifices began in 1939 with the completion of the Cathay Building. Throughout the 1970 ‘s and 1980 ‘s Singapore experienced a edifice roar which led to rapid industrialization, during which several skyscrapers and high-rise developments were completed. This skyscraper edifice roar continued in the 1990 ‘s and 2000 ‘s. Besides, the development of Marina Bay has besides encouraged the development of a figure of skyscrapers. Singapore ‘s skyline is alone and consists of a assortment of both high-rise and skyscrapers.