Rider Haggard ‘s novels, King Solomon ‘s Mines and She, published in 1885 and 1887, severally, autumn into the sub-genre of colonial high escapade love affairs. Their heroes ship on risky pursuits in colonised infinite ; and in the procedure plumb the deepnesss of their unconscious to get at a realization of their split minds. The novels besides engage with a national mind split between projections of idealized Englishness and the rough worlds of colonial development. Furthermore, they explore fin de siecle anxiousnesss over category, race and gender instabilities generated by the disruptions of modernness and imperial enlargement, and seek to decide these anxiousnesss through hysterical supplantings on to the ‘dark continent ‘ of Africa, which besides becomes coextensive with the ‘dark continent ‘ of female gender.


Critics6 have noted that Haggard ‘s heroes are first and first gentlemen. Haggard himself was witting of this when he dedicated one of his novels to his boies with the expressed hope that it would assist them to “ go better English gentlemen. “ 7 But he did non intend this in the sense in which gentlemanliness had come to be defined in the novels of Bronte, Dickens and Eliot: a definition that sough to integrate evangelically inspired “ feminine ” impressions of manners and behavior. Haggard ‘s novels constitute a recoil against the predomination of female authors ( and male opposite numbers who adopted their expressions ) who had set the footings of the argument on affairs of morality and their incorporation in national individuality. Wresting control from these “ scribbling adult females ” , male authors such as Haggard, Robert Louis Stevenson and Rudyard Kipling proceeded to “ refashion the high Victorian novel in Masculine footings, to take a rebellion of adult male against Queen George. “ 8 Added to this was the sensed menace to maleness posed by the outgrowth of the “ New Woman ” in the last one-fourth of the 19th century which provoked overdone images of superwomen ( such as Ayesha in She ) and hysterical supplantings of emasculation frights ( such as the hot-potting ceremony9 in She ) . Overdetermining this discourse of offseting maleness was the turning presence of England ‘s burgeoning imperium, which seemed to demand a more robust, muscular construct of Englishness that would suit the imperial image, and be able to get by with the asperities and anomalousnesss of imperium.

The Testing Of English Gentlemen In... TOPICS SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU

The emerging versions of English maleness were closely connected with Kingsley ‘s thought of “ ‘muscular Christianity ‘ mortalized on the disciplined male organic structure. “ 10 Gail Ching-Liang Low writes:

His [ Kingsley ‘s ] manfully hero acquired his values of dare, endurance, self-interest and honor on the playing Fieldss which taught non merely physical but moral wellness and character edifice. The rule of the healthy organic structure was a national and racial jussive mood and Kingsley radius of the demand to “ increase the English race ” and help its development “ to the highest pitchaˆ¦in physical strength and beauty. “ 11

In rhetoric that linked Kingsley ‘s trade name of “ muscular Christian religion ” with imperial jussive moods, Thomas Hughes argued that this trained race of English people could be used non merely for “ the protection of the weak ” but for “ the promotion of all righteous causes and the subduing of the Earth which God had given to the kids of work forces. “ 12 The predetermined subsequence to the “ playing Fieldss ” of the Public School was service in the difficult and demanding climes of imperium, which however besides proffered the pleasances and freedoms of impermanent expatriate. These included the chase of gentlemen ‘s athleticss such as fishing and hiting tinged with the exoticness and exhilaration of large game trophy hunting.

The appropriate genre for fictional looks of new thoughts of “ Muscular Christian religion ” was love affair. Haggard, after failed efforts at composing realistic fiction, chose love affair as his vehicle. His gentlemanlike heroes could work best in a particular universe that non merely coincides with the unconscious parts of the mind,13 but besides is imbricated in a nationalist rhetoric reinscribed within a late 19th century discourse of imperium.

The indispensable ingredients of love affair as described by Northrop Frye are present in these two novels: The successful pursuit, the parlous journey that tests the heart of the heroes, the struggle between hero and scoundrel, the relentless nostalgia and hunt for some sort of “ inventive aureate age in clip and infinite ” , the locked thorax or the parchment map14 that holds the secrets of birth and ancient origins,15 but reinscribed within a late Victorian dianoetic field of imperium conundrums with paranoia over race, category and gender individuality. Frye advances a theory of love affair as reaffirming and reenforcing society ‘s most of import ideals and values. Jeff Bass finds this inadequate to explicate the persuasive and rhetorical power16 of Haggard ‘s novels, which employ elements of phantasy and the Gothic to make colonial desire. The libido or the wanting ego is set free from restraints of occupation and household to seek fulfillment. Love affair is besides the return to the artlessness of childhood where good and immoralities are defined in simple, archetypical terms.17

Archetypal representations of the forces of good and immoralities are transmogrified into antic signifiers of the Imperial Gothic, a term Patrick Brantlinger coined to include “ quest love affairs with Gothic overtones in which heroic white incursion of the Dark Continent is the cardinal subject. “ 18 He enumerates the three chief subjects of the Imperial Gothic as single arrested development or traveling native, an invasion of civilization by the forces of brutality, and a response to the decline of chances for escapade and gallantry in the modern world.19 In Haggard ‘s two novels, geographic expedition in Africa gives the heroes the chance to prove their bravery and in the procedure to gain facets of their manhood identifiable as crude, and in the terminal to return to “ civilisation ” with their Englishness intact and amalgamate, and perchance even amplified through brushs with the Other. Africa confirms their manhood, while at the same clip supplying them with the opportunity to do a speedy luck.

The temptingness of economic addition – while subordinated in the novels to the religious pursuit motive – for misfits, 2nd boies deprived of any heritage, or those who did non hold the accomplishments for success in an progressively competitory, industrialized universe, can non be overestimated. Haggard himself was an illustration of a younger boy who might hold been a failure at place if he had non had the chance to function in the imperium. Declared by his female parent to be dull witted, and by his male parent to be “ fit merely to be a greengrocer ” , undereducated for a scion of the Norfolk aristocracy, he entered a place, arranged for him by his male parent, in South Africa. There, he was entrusted with of import missions, found regard and easy credence in English society, and, improbably, by the age of 20 was appointed to the place of High Magistrate.20 The instant high quality afforded by a white tegument combined with opportunites to do a fortune rapidly were surely an attractive force of service in imperium. Yet the imperium in fiction is represented more as an imperium of the imagination,21 where Englishmen could prove and consolidate their definition of “ civilised gentlemanliness ” against the ‘evil ‘ forces of ignorance, superstitious notion and pagan rites. The competition was configured in footings of high escapades and hazards that could be overcome through heroism.22

Wendy Katz observes that for Haggard “ the quintessential Englishman was an adventurer, the ‘free adult male ‘ in stereotype ” ,23 and quotes Rider Haggard as authorship in 1923 that “ the Englishman is by blood and gustatory sensation a bargainer, a traveler, a combat adult male, all, so, that goes to do what is known as an adventurer. “ 24


The same formulaic form of escapade and love affair repetitions itself in Haggard ‘s later novel, She, a novel which besides sets free in fanciful colonial infinite two gentlemen accompanied by a loyal retainer, Job. The presence of Job introduces a stronger category differentiation33 than in the earlier novel between the two gentlemen, Holly and Leo, and the domestic servant representative of the working categories. Job is described by Holly in footings of amused and patronizing superciliousness. He is introduced early in the narrative as the “ suited male attender ” ( S,19 ) , a former stable manus whom Holly engages to look after Leo because he “ would hold no adult female to lord it over [ him ] about the kid and steal [ his ] fondness from [ him ] ” ( S,18 ) . In the succeeding chapters Job ‘s visual aspect and character emerge as stereotyped images of the rural on the job category: He has a unit of ammunition, honorable face, perpetually perplexed ; he is biased against dark skinned races, rough around the borders, given the impiousnesss, picks up his H ‘s and speaks in a tone which is “ an uneven mixture of a sense of personal hurt, accustomed regard, and acknowledge fright ” ( S,68 ) ; he is a woman hater ; he is superstitious, has weak nervousnesss ( S,240 ) and is easy terrified. On the surface, Job is the antonym of the self-described two English gentlemen, although it might be argued that their concealed frights and failings are safely displaced on to him. Job explicitly serves to consolidate their characters, but implicitly serves to debar ( along with the “ titillating trigon ” 34 formed by Holly, Leo and She ) intuition of a homoerotic bounding between Holly and Leo. The novel besides addresses homophobic terror by invariably reminding the reader about the filial nature of the common fondness between Holly and Leo. Ironically, both Job and Ayesha are eliminated at the terminal of the novel, go forthing the heroes to do their manner out of the Kor together. Presumably, their concluding declaration of their ageless devotedness towards Ayesha and the hinted possibility of her return would fulfill the homophobic concerns of a Victorian readership.

Unlike his earlier novel ‘s representations of the squire, the bargainer, and the military adult male, Haggard ‘s She constructs its hero, Holly, as a Cambridge done, and his ward, Leo, as holding been educated in Cambridge, a university about entirely reserved for the kids of gentlemen. Haggard came in for unfavorable judgment by Morton Cohen and several of his modern-day referees for his inability to capture the address and thought forms of Cambridge-educated men.35 This is barely surprising in position of the fact that Haggard, unlike his older brothers, was considered by his parents excessively much of a stupid to be sent to either a public school or, subsequently, to its corollary, Cambridge. Possibly, Haggard was holding his retaliation in stand foring his two Cambridge-educated gentlemen clicking like schoolboys. There are, so several points in the text where the Cambridge Don is satirised. Mentions to “ the good-humored Head of my college ” ( S,103 ) , to “ eminently respectable dodo friends down at Cambridge ” ( S,76 ) are followed by remarks disdainful of their fustian deficiency of a sense of escapade, or of the strength and bravery to take on Herculean undertakings such as befit heroic representatives of Imperial England. Probably, the most acrid farce is this physical description of Holly, the Cambridge Don:

To get down with, he was shortish, instead bowlegged, really deep chested and with remarkably long weaponries. He had dark hair and little eyes, and the hair grew right down on his brow, and his beards grew right up to his hair, so that there was uncommonly small of his visage to be seen. Altogether he reminded me forcibly of a gorillaaˆ¦ ( S,2 )

At a ulterior point in the novel, Billali dubs him the “ baboon ” . Holly ‘s description has been related by critics to Haggard ‘s belief in the throwback crudeness underlying the civilized veneer of his English gentlemen. It besides does dual work of roasting the decadent ostentation of the academic, and reenforcing, by contrast, the “ muscular Christianity ” of the imperial adventurer.

At the same clip, it recognises the increasing function played by the English populace schools and elect universities in preparation future leaders of the British Empire. It besides validates the pseudo-scientific ethnographic commentary that Holly indulges in from clip to clip, a commentary that reproduces the increasing involvement in both the scientific and lay community in detecting, sorting and distinguishing capable populations. The racial specificity of Haggard ‘s distinction of native people and his esteem of peculiar physical and mental traits have been advanced by some critics as cogent evidence of his anti-imperialist and culturally relativist attitudes.36 Robert Young ‘s position that the late nineteenth-century ‘s “ less Eurocentric relativism ” recognizing human difference went manus in manus with a hardening of thoughts on racial inequality.37 Racial difference was used to back up claims of high quality of the white races.





The racial and national Other in She presents a complicated form, working alternately as a “ shadow text ” 51 to late Victorian anxiousnesss over debauched signifiers of behavior amongst cultural minorities and amongst the labor, and as the self-consolidating Other transmogrified into antic signifiers of the racial Gothic. The Negro race in She is debased to the extent that it is represented merely in inanimate signifier as the top of a extremum carved in the form of “ a Black ‘s caput and face, whereon was stamped a most demonic and terrorizing look ” ( S,58 ) . The description continues:

There was no uncertainty about it ; there were the thick lips, the fat cheeks, and the knee bend nose standing out with galvanizing clarity against the fire background. There, excessively was the unit of ammunition skull, washed into form possibly by 1000s of old ages of air current and conditions, and, to finish the resemblance, there was a scrabbly growing of weeds or lichen upon it, which against the Sun looked for all the universe like the wool on a colossal Black ‘s caput. ( S,58 )

Holly speculates that it might hold been carved as a warning or as an act of rebelliousness. The “ diabolic face ” “ dourly stands ” at the low-water mark of a racial hierarchy that acquires a chromatic cryptography with ‘white ‘ ( Ayesha, Holly, Leo ) at the top and so in falling order the brown-to-yellow Amaggar and the dark brown skinned Mohamed, who is looked down upon by the Amahaggar as “ black ” ( S,75 ) . The hierarchy of race is besides linked to the anteriority of certain ancient civilization such as the Arab ( to which Ayesha belongs ) , the Egyptian, and the Greek, which function as “ a mark for the startup of Western civilisation itself. “ 52 There is a corresponding legitimisation of English empire as the heir of these great civilizations. Leo ‘s female parent is Grecian and he can follow his line of descent on his male parent ‘s side back to the Egyptians. The building of Leo ‘s Egyptian lineage bears the Markss of late Victorian preoccupations with Egypt and its ancient civilization. Robert Young describes efforts to repair the antediluvian Egyptian civilization as Caucasian instead than African in beginning. He cites the phrenological work done in the nineteenth-century by the American anatomist and Egyptologist, S.G. Morton to turn out that “ the vale of the Nile, both in Egypt and in Nubia was originally peopled by a subdivision of the Caucasic race ” instead than Negro, and that “ the societal place ” of Negroes “ in ancient times was the same that it now is, that of retainers and slaves. “ 53

A prejudiced differentiation is drawn between the antediluvian peoples and their modern posterities. Mohamed, descendent of the ancient Arab civilization, is put in the place of a feminised inferior and treated as expendable in the hot-potting ceremonial. Holly comments at a ulterior point in the narrative that the “ Greeks of today are non what the Greeks of old clip were and Greece herself is but a jeer of the Greece that was ” and that Leo “ had nil of the lissome signifier or slippery manners of the modern Greek. ” The differentiation hinges on pureness of race as the grade of high quality. Hence Ayesha is able to look down on Leo and declare that her race can non blend with his until he is purified by the pillar of fire.

The Amahaggar are, of class, the quintessential illustration of the hurtful effects of racial commixture. With the exclusion of Ustane and Billali, the Amahaggar are represented as the evil Other against whom an idealized building of Englishness may successfully accomplish both definition and consolidation. The resistance works non merely through an Imperial Gothic that depicts colonized races in footings of unnatural savageness and brutality, but besides through an designation of the Amahaggar with anxiousnesss of racial and national degeneration and indefiniteness in late Victorian England. Low notes that the sense of menace from Germany, France, Russia and the United States was “ matched by an edginess within England as concern with the jobs of urban poorness because enmeshed with an compulsion with ‘Darkest England ‘ . “ 54 The dislocation of category constructions and an addition in the population of the urban hapless, who lived in sordidness and crud, was linked by many societal observers to frailty and moral debasement. Simultaneously, frights of racial pollution arose from the inflow of Irish and Scotch who formed cultural minorities in the metropoliss and from the infiltration of colonials and ‘half-breeds ‘ from spread outing empire.55 The half-breed, contents Malchow, peculiarly assumed symbolic significance as the “ Gothic unnatural ” in late 19th century literature.56 Malchow argues that the half-breed was invested with bad or weak qualities such as “ ‘vanity, ‘ ‘passion, ‘ deficiency of ‘self-control ‘ ” that the white imperialist was required to stamp down in order to suit “ the building of the idealised upper-class male as altruistic Stoic in the 2nd half of the century. “ 57 The term ‘s symbolic value besides stems from frights of the “ white adult male traveling native ” and offending racial boundaries.58

The Amahaggar are characterised as “ a asshole brood of the mighty boies of Kor ” ( S,181 ) – identified in the text as Caucasic – and as talking “ bogus Arabic ” ( S,77 ) . Holly speculates that they are posterities of exogamy between the remnant people of Kor and either Arab bargainers or Negroes. Physically, they meet Caucasic criterions of good expressions, although their fluctuations in skin tone underscore their racial indefiniteness: “ They were all tall and fine-looking, though they varied in their grade of darkness of tegument, some being every bit dark as Mohamed and some every bit xanthous as a Chinese ” ( 80 ) But the “ cold and dark inhuman treatment ” ( S,77 ) of their looks betrays the fact that, mentally and socially, they violate Western norms of civilized behavior. Their societal construction clearly contravenes Victorian conventions of patriarchal domination. The adult females are “ non merely upon footings of perfect equality with the work forces, but are non held to them by any binding ties. ” Descent is purely through matriarchal lines, paternity by and large being regarded as inconsequential. Womans choose their couples, meaning their pick through an embracing, and may merely as easy acquire rid of them if they tire of them. However, there are contradictions to the matriarchal system in the male parent ‘s legal power to order the decease of any adult male who transgresses customary regulations and besides to set to decease adult females who have outlived their usage as “ beginnings of life ” . The apparitional inversion, hence, is merely partial and at the same time reinforces patriarchal jurisprudence and the Victorian association of a adult female ‘s worth with her generative capacity. At the same clip, the dianoetic image of the “ perfect adult female ” ( 112 ) – an angel in the grave – worshipped by work forces is enacted through the incident related by Billali of his infatuation with the cadaver of a beautiful white adult female, burned down by Billali ‘s female parent to the “ beautiful molded pes ” ( 112 ) , that becomes a fetishised object for Billali. Receiving it from his alternate male parent, Billali, Holly puts it away in his “ Gladstone bag ” ( 113 ) thereby reconstructing the white adult female ‘s pes to the ownership of the white male. The other theoretical account of perfect female beauty is Ayesha. Female beauty signifies entrapment to the male and must be annihilated.

It is important that Holly declares the matriarchal society of the Amahaggar to be “ in direct resistance to the wonts of about every other barbarian race in the universe ” ( 81 ) . Hybridity leaves them suspended in a asshole indefiniteness that encourages inversions and perversions such as pes fetichism, necrophilia, and cannibalism. This last pattern while the Amahaggar indulge in through the unnatural rite of hot-potting, carried curious resonances in Victorian society. Much work has been done on the term man-eater as a form in colonial discourse by Peter Hulme59 and H.L. Malchow. The representation of foreign races peculiarly in the Caribbean, the South Pacific and in Africa as man-eaters forms portion of “ a reserve of presentations, ” as Malchow notes, “ available to Europeans to pull upon in their ain struggleaˆ¦with jobs of societal, sexual and religious individuality. “ 60 Malchow farther observes that the ‘cannibal ‘ “ serves to implement societal and sexual boundaries non merely by being the image of a barbarian oppositeaˆ¦butaˆ¦by integrating others within himself, he becomes the image of pandemonium beyond the constructions universe of personality, subordination and hierarchy. “ 61

Late 19th century fictional word pictures of white work forces meeting man-eaters in Africa in the class of their escapades persisted despite Livingston ‘s and Robert Knox ‘ agnosticism sing the being of Cannibalism in Africa.62 The cannibalism of barbarian races became the topic of imitations and gags and the “ fret pot ” ( of which the hot-pot is a sexually charged discrepancy ) a amusing symbol.63 The Amahaggar ‘s maltreatment of the mummified cadavers, turning them into human torches, adds even deeper corruption to their savageness.

The ejaculation of allusions to the English mundane ( such as mentions to Gladstone bags bought at the ground forces and navy shop, to Norfolk jackets, to 19th century ladies imbibing afternoon tea ) conjure up visions of English normality in the thick of the arcane and the bizarre. Whilst a few of the allusions are to the city, for the most portion they evoke the societal surroundings of the Norfolk minor aristocracy to which Haggard ‘s male parent belonged and to whose life-style he returned after he became a successful novelist. There is considerable accent on the wholesome rationality64 of the two gentlemen and on how much their credulity is stretched by the supernatural phenomena they encounter. ( In contrast, the domestic retainer, Job, is described as being superstitious ) . At the terminal of the novel, Holly and Leo, holding dabbled briefly in the supernatural, return without Job ( he is struck dead by fear ) to the same security of their English place, with their Englishness intact and uncontaminated by racial commixture or exogamy. Ustane is handily dispatched before her relationship with the white male can germinate into a lasting bonding through matrimony.



A similar decrease of the “ ageless feminine ” occurs in She when Ayesha, after bathing for a 2nd clip in the peal fire undergoes a degeneration into the lowest signifier of life. Holly sees her signifier lose “ its perfect form and uprightness ” ( S,292 ) , the phallic serpent of gilded faux pass and her skin coloring material descends the hierarchically constructed chromatic graduated table from “ perfect whiteness ” to “ soil brown and xanthous ” ( S,293 ) until she eventually becomes subhuman. The undermentioned description occurs:

At last she lay still, or merely feebly traveling. She, who but two proceedingss before had gazed upon us the loveliest, noblest, most glorious adult female the universe has of all time seen, she lay before us, near the multitudes of her ain dark hair, no longer than a large monkey, and horrid – ah, excessively horrid for words. And yet, think of this – at that really minute I thought of it – it was the same adult female! ( 294 )

The insisting on the sameness collapses difference between the female and the simian.

Holly and Leo make their manner out of the cave and back to Billali by utilizing their male ground and strength, and so with the aid of Holly ‘s “ nominal parent ” ( S,313 ) , Billali – described as looking “ peculiar patriarchal with his fluxing face fungus ” ( S,106 ) – they return to civilization and to the patriarchal order of Victorian society.

Ayesha ‘s subhuman degeneration and decease is the apogee of a perennial move in the text to cut down Ayesha from superwoman to “ mere ” adult female, with the infirmities historically attributed to he gender. Ayesha, on the one manus, maps as a mark of “ womb power ” , of a aboriginal life-force that threatens to castrate both Holly and Leo. When Holly foremost walks towards her, he asserts his pride and high quality as an Englishman by declining to near her on custodies and articulatio genuss as Billali does. Subjected to her imperial regard, he is filled with a “ unidentified panic ” ( S,141 ) . Once the head covering is drawn from her muliebrity and she exhibits her bare signifier to him, he is filled with “ impotent desire ” ( S,154 ) which brings him to his articulatio genuss before her ( S,190 ) . Similarly, Leo, after Ustane has been “ blasted into decease ” by Ayesha is sent reeling back towards Holly by Ayesha ‘s outstretched manus, and feels as if “ all the manhood had been taken out of him ” ( S,227,228 ) . But Holly holds the narrative power to cut down Ayesha from superwoman, stand foring, possibly, the “ New Woman ” Victorian work forces found so dashing to “ merely a adult female ” . Holly narrates Ayesha ‘s reaction to seeing the scarab ring:

“ It is really unusual ” she said, with a sudden entree of womanliness shaking and agitation which seemed out of topographic point in this atrocious adult female – “ but one time I knew a Scarabaeus sacer like that. It – hung round the cervix – of one I loved ” and she gave a small shortness of breath, and I thought that after all she was merely a adult female, although she might be a really old one. ( S,157 )

Shortly after this scene Holly follows her through “ an aperture in the rocky wall ” ( S,161 ) that leads to a transition that takes him to a cave. He turns the tabular arraies on Ayesha, and she, in bend, becomes the object of his male regard as he observes her through a drape from the arrant darkness of the transition. It is now Ayesha who is on her articulatio genuss before a sheeted male cadaver.

These reversals in the text and the concluding degeneration of Ayesha to a subhuman species enact the ambiguities of her operation as a form of empiure, and, at the same time. , as form of the ageless feminine. In the former map, she serves as a reasonably stable form that corresponds with forms of British colonial regulation in South Africa. Ayesha ‘s regulation over the Amahaggar corresponds with the actualities of British policy in the settlements. Ayesha, Queen of the Amahaggar regulations from a land and allows her topics to pattern their ain imposts and traditions,70 ( even those that are abhorrent to her such as hot-potting and the violent death of older adult females once they are past childbearing age ) , step ining merely when the families threaten to destruct one another, or when her direct orders are flagrantly disobeyed, and so in such a manner as to animate panic. Ayesha, harmonizing to Ustane, is merely seen by the Amahaggar two or three times a twelvemonth and she is ever veiled. The channels of authorization from the Ayeshian Centre to the scattered Amahaggar do non look clear and univocal. Necessarily she must utilize an intermediary ( Billali ) who fulfils the map of confederate. Present here are resonances non merely of the physical world of the distancing of London from the distant outstations of its far flung imperium, but besides of discourses of the clip, refering the jobs of administration of the settlements, that reflected some vacillation in shiping on a plan of straight-out appropriation and infliction of British jurisprudence and imposts on capable populations. Native sources and confederates were recognised as a necessary adjunct to British power. On the other manus, a distant imperial civilization must non waver to utilize force when necessary to keep its hegemonic place, but the object of such force must be to instil fear.71 Ayesha comments to Holly: “ How thinkest 1000 that I rule these people? I have a regiment of guards to make my command, therefore it is non by force. It is by panic. My imperium is of the imaginativeness ” ( S,175 ) .

Instabilities occur due to Ayesha ‘s coincident operation as a form of the “ ageless feminine ” . A despotic sovereign of the inferior, debased folk of the Amahaggar is a logical extension of patriarchate into colonized lands that were constructed as inhabited by barbarians ; but the female gender of the sovereign renders her regulation debatable. Enacted here is male edginess over the anomalous presence of a adult female, the extremely long lived Queen Victoria, at the vertex of British hierarchy: queen of Great Britain and titular empress of all its territorial acquisitions. The embarrassment of a female caput of an Imperial endeavor that was being narrated in romantic footings of masculinist jussive moods of freedom, escapade and fulfillment of boyhood dreams is non difficult to conceive of. Adrienne Auslander Munich remarks on the contradictions between Queen Victoria ‘s maps as “ devoted married woman, fecund female parent and excessive widow ” and her place as “ Queen of an imperium upon which the Sun ne’er sets. “ 72 Munich finds that these contradictions work themselves out in late Victorian novels through representations of Queens that run to excess and transport “ valencies peculiar to the historical minute. ” In Haggard ‘s She, Munich locates “ extra ” in an overdone and perverse intervention of Victoria ‘s distinctive features. She discovers in Ayesha ‘s two thousand twelvemonth reign and long period of waiting for her lover ‘s return a reproduction of Queen Victoria ‘s apparently eternal reign and 25 twelvemonth old period mourning for Prince Albert.73 On the same lines, Ayesha ‘s necrophilic compulsions might be read as a ghastly reinscription of Victoria ‘s alleged compulsion with funerals.

The potency of Ayesha ‘s physical antithesis to Queen Victoria is suggested although non explored in Munich ‘s analysis of the problematics of Victoria ‘s unmadonna-like organic structure. She writes:

The problemaˆ¦is that Victoria as female parent and sovereign leads to confusion: something appears to be incorrect at the top of the pyramid of authorization. Although an idealised female parent, a Madonna, is vested with great religious authorization, unvirginal female parents, unlike male parents, are less conceivable as stand foring temporal monarchy ; maternal monarchy seems absurd. By being so perplexedly physical and fecund Victoria ‘s female organic structure does non impart itself to translation as a Madonnaaˆ¦74

In contrast, Ayesha ‘s female organic structure surely lends itself to the image of Madonna. She is tall, sinuously graceful, slime and possesses an idealized beauty that blinds the senses of work forces who behold her ( S,142 ) . Compare this with Queen Victoria who in the words of Dorothy Thompson was “ a little knee bend adult female shaped instead like a tea-cosy with an unsmiling face set in the crabbed lines of old age. “ 75 Ayesha, who eats meagerly merely of fruit and sips merely sparkling H2O ( S,145 ) , is sexually chaste: a virgin goddess. Queen Victoria had a hearty appetency, which she readily indulged, and a fancy for score, and was rumoured to hold had a “ lustful relationship ” with a Highlander, John Brown.76

The conflicting images of Victoria in the rhetoric of popular civilization are chronicled at length in Dorothy Thompson ‘s life of the queen. Victoria, it should non be forgotten, presided over an spread outing imperium in an epoch in which male domination and clearly gendered domains of work and influence had gained considerable land. Yet a female in the highest office in the state seemed to hold been widely accepted, and in fact anti-monarchical sentiment among political groups such as the Chartists may hold been defused exactly because of her gender.77 Her personal foibles were besides overlooked in the carefully orchestrated build-up of images which progressively associated her in the public head “ with unsmiling and self-satisfied self-satisifcation. “ 78 In her ulterior old ages, Thompson notes ; “ They succeeded in environing her with an aura of moral certainty and a strongly feminine quality of maternal devotedness and disinterested household trueness which impressed itself on topics of many states and many races. “ 79

It seems to be this maternal image of monarchy that Haggard ‘s novel She works peculiarly difficult to antagonize. Ayesha moves through some absorbing oscillations in her image. She moves from minutes when she seems to be endowed with phallic power, embodied in the snake-like motions of her organic structure and the double-headed serpent belt around her waist, to minutes when she exhibits the female-identified traits of softened influenced and coquettishness. An illustration of this occurs when she sees the Scarabaeus sacer ring and her “ lovely face grew stiff, and the gracious willowy signifier seems to raise itself ” ( S,156 ) merely a few paragraphs subsequently to be seized by a “ sudden entree of womanliness shaking and agitation ” ( S,157 ) . She oscillates between virgin goddess with Circean potency and benign Madonna and phallic female parent with emasculating power. An correspondent correspondence seems to be set up with the alternate seduction of the thought of imperium, the beneficent facets of its idealized signifier and the castrating world of its predatory endeavor. But it is her concluding transmutation into maternal image that spells the terminal to her power. Before she enters the fire, Ayesha surrenders “ rule over sea and Earth ” ( S,285 ) to Leo, bestows a maternal buss on his brow and urges him “ to woolgather upon thy female parent ‘s buss ” ( 290 ) . Her decease symbolically resolves the incompatibilities and mutual exclusivenesss of female regulation with the patriarchal order, whilst at the same clip taking the menace posed by the “ New Woman ” to the strengthened sense of masculinised national individuality that emerges, at the terminal of the novel, out of “ the awful uterus of the vent ” ( S,301 ) .

Haggard ‘s avowal and consolidations of national individuality revolve around its cardinal construct of gentlemanliness written in muscular footings that are consistent with the rural aristocracy ‘s commixture of parochial duties with the pleasances of the pursuit, whether they be through shows of good sportsmanship or through the chase in colonized infinite of escapades unavailable at place. Haggard ‘s heroes are endowed with ‘womanlike ‘ qualities of sensitive and compassion, but avoid the “ autumn into muliebrity ” through the unembarrassed delectation they take in floging the enemy in a good battle. His novels besides subordinate the grosser materialities of colonial escapade to the religious facets of the romantic pursuit.

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