Totalitarian states used to filtrate information, for illustration, political, in such a manner that people received beginnings, stuffs, texts wholly different than they truly were. Before 1989 in the Soviet Union, information was besides filtered in class books used in schools and other educational establishments. In Soviet Union larning a linguistic communication provided an debut to the English universe which was a military and ideological enemy of the Soviet Union. Students learned about civilization and society of the English speech production universe. Following Wolfgang Pauels and Thomas Fox I would wish to show what sorts of texts were used to show the cultural and historical facets of English linguistic communication.
Course book authors agree that texts should be built harmonizing to lingual and matter-of-fact elements. To demo world of the class books used in Soviet Union Wolfgang Pauels and Thomas Fox focal point on the description of cultural facets of English talking states particularly the USA. They selected texts about the USA and divided them harmonizing to subjects:
Geographic Description – The information used in such subjects was normally touristic and superficial. The writer of such a text wanted to make a image of an American society divided into categories, concentrating on its jobs. Furthermore, he wanted to demo differences between American and Soviet society in which all people purportedly were equal. Besides, such jobs of American society as the unemployment were to be underlined.
Example: “ New York is one of the largest metropoliss in the universe with a population of more than eight million. It is situated on several islands and has five territories. There are many Bridgess between all the territories. New York is the chief haven and the fiscal, political and cultural centre of the United States of America. The large capitalists of the USA have their offices in Wall Street. Another celebrated street is Broadway, which is the longest street in metropolis. Many business communities make money at that place. They have eating houses, music, halls, theatres, film and stores. The people can purchase apparels, places, nutrient, veggies, fruit and a batch of other things. But life is non easy in New York for those who are non rich. It is hard to happen work. Many workers live in old houses. They are really hot in summer and really cold in winter. There are many kids in the working territory of the New York. They are left to themselves, cipher expressions after them. In Harlem, where normally Black American live, life is the most hard. There are a batch of unemployed here – more than in any other territory of New York. Black and Whites are ever waiting near mills and offices trusting to acquire some sort of work. ” ( Starkov, A.P et Al. : English, volume 8 erectile dysfunction, by E.G. )
Peoples – The writers wanted to demo that people who live in America are the capitalist slaves. From the texts we can besides happen out that America is a state of emigres whose are normally unrecorded and work in bad status. Besides, it is shown that the authorities does non assist people, that all money is spent on military demands. What is more, the writers show that it is really hard to acquire a occupation in the USA. And besides, that houses are in a really bad status.
Examples: New York, the largest metropolis in the USA, is a metropolis of a great contrasts. Side by side with wealth and comfort, poorness, and race favoritism can be found. The Statue of Liberty, standing on an island in the seaport, greets everyone who comes to New York by sea. Millions of emigres from all parts of the universe crossed the ocean, trusting to happen a better life, but they did non happen a state of equal chances. [ aˆ¦ ] In New York, there are many representatives of about all the universe ‘s national groups, and when you walk in the streets and avenues of Manhattan you can hear practically every linguistic communication in the universe. In the metropolis of New York entirely, there are more than one million Negros. They largely live in Harlem, the poorest territory of New York. [ aˆ¦ ] It is non really easy to happen work in New York. A adult male in demand takes up any occupation he finds, even the most severely paid one. But really many New Yorkers have no occupation at all. [ aˆ¦ ] But the federal authorities in Washington does little to assist New York to work out its many jobs. There is no money for public services, for lodging. Many flat houses in New York are old, the suites are little and dark, [ .. ] Living conditions in such flat houses are really bad. ( Starkov, A.P et Al. : English, volume 9 erectile dysfunction, by E.G. )
Politicss – In all the texts the first writer presents the nonsubjective information and so ideological information. From “ Politicss ” texts we can happen out that US political parties are retainers of capitalist economy and besides that parties are similar. Besides, the writer compared US parties with Communist Party which has no political significance whatsoever in the USA. It is besides claimed that people in USA are discriminated and have no right to vote.
Example: The United States of America is a federal democracy dwelling of 50 provinces, each of which has its ain authorities. The present fundamental law was proclaimed in 1787 in Philadelphia. The president elected for four old ages, is caput of province and the authorities, and chooses the curates. Congress consists of two houses, the House of Representative and the Senate. [ aˆ¦ ] Practically, both the federal authorities and the province authoritiess serve the involvements of the capitalists. As a consequence of racial and other signifiers of favoritism many citizens of the USA, particularly black and “ colored, ” have no rights proclaimed by the Constitution. In the USA there are two chief political parties, The Democratical Party and the Republican Party. The Democratical Party was organized in the 1820s. The Republican Party was organized in the 1850s. These Parties are non different from each other. Each party is interested merely in winning elections. The Communist Party of the USA was organized in 1919. It fought against the US intercession in the immature Soviet Republic. It acts in the involvement of working people and the state as whole. [ aˆ¦ ] The Communist Party of the USA is a party of action, a party working for socialism. ( Starkov, A.P et Al. : English, volume 9 erectile dysfunction, by E.G. )
The School System – Such texts shows failing of the American School system. The writers of that text present no reliable information about mundane school life. The writer wrote besides that authorities does non pay attending to public schools and besides that schools topics do non give any practical cognition which can assist to acquire a occupation.
Example: “ The American system of school instruction differs from the system in some states. There are state-supported public schools, private simple schools and private secondary schools. Public schools are free and private schools are fee-paying. Each single province has its ain system of public schools. The federal authorities pays little or no attending to the schools. Elementary instruction Begin at the age of six with the first class and continues through to the 8th class. In most provinces kids are supposed to travel to school until the age of 16 or until they have finished the 8th class. [ aˆ¦ ] Besides giving general instruction, some high school teach topics utile to those who hope to happen occupations in industry or agribusiness. [ aˆ¦ ] At the same clip, educational chances in the USA are formal for many people. One per cent of American citizens from the age of 14 and older can neither read nor compose. Over two million American kids do non travel to school, and six million attend merely the first class. ( Starkov, A.P et Al. : English, volume 9 erectile dysfunction, by E.G. )
To sum up, for pupil who study in states where English is a foreign linguistic communication, class book and instructor are the most of import. Course books in the Soviet Union would non give a opportunity to develop pupil ‘s sentiments and readings. Readers should accept what the official propaganda of the Soviet Union presents about English speech production universe. Russian pupils could have merely a small cognition of American civilization from their class books. The pupils was non allowed to cognize the true image of the US, but was, alternatively, given a extremely colored 1. The class books describe America as a state without any chances. Course books writers present information in such a manner that pupils should understand and accept them as typical.