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Maping normally refers to map-making where it represents of an country of land or sea which demoing physical characteristics and it frequently used alternatively of mapmaking. Maping term is sometimes used for geospatial informations aggregation like distant feeling. There a many type of mapping for illustration topographic, bathymetric, cadastral, photogrammetric function, distant detection, etc. From all type of the function, photogrammetric is the best function because it deriving trusty information about physical characteristics and the environment. It can cover from big into little country.

Maping besides can be stand foring in 2D and besides 3D. The photogrammetric technique is frequently used as informations coevals and besides processing. For information generate will carried out two overlapping aerial exposure. Data processing will be carried out by package. In photogrammetric, 3D theoretical account can be generated utilizing 3D two-channel theoretical account and I besides can be generated by assorted technique.

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Some of photogrammetric package consist or supply a different truth of 3D theoretical account like Erdas Imagine, Topcon PI 3000 Image Master, Leica Photogrammetric Suit and others. However digital photogrammetry like package make the photogrammetric become easier, faster, simpler and besides give a low cost. Harmonizing to ERDAS ( 2002 ) , this photogrammetric technique is closely integrated into distant detection and GIS.

Harmonizing to Anuar Ahmad ( 2012 ) , Digital photogrammetric method involves treating the digital images of aerial exposure utilizing computing machine. The digital images can be captured straight utilizing digital camera or scanned from aerial exposure. In digital photogrammetry, many undertakings can be extremely automated. In this survey, there will be used two sort of digital photogrammetric package known as Leica Photogrammetric Suite ( LPS ) and PHOTOMOD.

LPS can be defined as a photogrammetric package application on imagination and it besides used for pull outing information from imagination. This imagination may be come from distant detection, airborne/aircraft cameras, or ground-based cameras. For PHOTOMOD, it is planned for remote detection informations through photogrammetric processing. PHOTOMOD besides allows in researching wide-ranging possibilities and public presentation. Next information will be used is ground control point which will set up utilizing Global Positioning System ( GPS ) .

By utilizing photogrammetric package, it is to authorise users to alter natural imagination into reliable informations beds required for all digital function, 3D visual image and GIS analysis. This will measure for capablenesss of selected package bring forthing technique for 3D function. This survey will be profit for any application for illustration Location Based Service ( LBS ) , Augmented Reality, 3D metropolis theoretical account, etc.

Problem Statement

Presents, users can non deny at that place a batch of package to treat the natural information for photogrammetric. All of them have advantages and disadvantage in making the quality merchandise. Some of it gave different truth which is high or flat truth. In these surveies, it will measure for capablenesss of selected package bring forthing technique for 3D function. This will give some of user choichoosing the best package for treating the photogrammetry informations.

Following job is about the information input where the current aerial exposure is non been up-to-date. It may be happen because of costing, clip and besides the equipment. For illustration bing like the surveyor demand to book an aero plane for taking the exposure, if there go on any error it need to wing once more and it used a batch of money.

Purpose

The purpose of this survey is to bring forth 3D GIS maps and measure their truth utilizing different photogrammetric package ( LPS, PHOTOMOD, DVP etc. ) .

Aim

To carry on GPS study for land control points.

To bring forth digital GIS map utilizing photogrammetric techniques and package.

To compare the capablenesss of selected photogrammetric package for bring forthing 3D GIS Map.

Scope of Study

This survey will concentrate on comparing the capablenesss of the selected photogrammetric package for bring forthing 3D GIS map. For some ground, one of the package possibly users friendly, more accurate, give high declaration function or so on.

Study Area

The surveies country will transport out on Shah Alam metropolis and possible to cover around UiTM.

Software

For these surveies, it is utilizing two different type of package. The package will be usage is Leica Photogrammetric Suite ( LPS ) and PHOTOMOD.

Datas Required

In this survey, the informations will be involved Aerial Photograph and Ground Control Point utilizing Global Positioning System ( GPS ) .

Chapter 2

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SOFTWARE FOR 3D GIS Function

Introduction

In this chapter describes the theory, application of GIS in 3D function by utilizing photogrammetric package.

Maping

Maping normally refers to map-making where it represents of an country of land or sea which demoing physical characteristics and it frequently used alternatively of mapmaking. Maping term is sometimes used for geospatial informations aggregation like distant feeling. There a many type of mapping for illustration topographic, bathymetric, cadastral, photogrammetric function, distant detection, etc. From all type of the function, photogrammetric is the best function because it deriving information about physical characteristics and the environment. It can cover from big into a little country.

Photogrammetric function

Photogrammetric function can be described as a procedure of roll uping geographic and information about physical land characteristics and the environment by entering, mensurating and interpretation of aerial photographic images. Photogrammetric function besides can be stand foring in 2D and besides 3D. In photogrammetric, 3D theoretical account can be generated utilizing 3D two-channel theoretical account and besides can be generated by assorted technique. To bring forth 3D theoretical account, it can be utilizing aerial photogrammetry and close scope methods. The photogrammetric technique is frequently used as informations coevals and besides processing. For information generate will carried out two overlapping aerial exposure. The information processing will be carried out by package.

Photogrammetric Software

Harmonizing to A. Ahmad ( 2011 ) , Digital photogrammetric method involves treating the digital images of aerial exposure utilizing computing machine. The digital images can be captured straight utilizing digital camera or scanned from aerial exposure. In digital photogrammetry, many undertakings can be extremely automated. Some of photogrammetric package green goods or supply a different truth of 3D model/map such as Erdas Imagine, Topcon PI 3000 Image Master, Leica Photogrammetric Suite ( LPS ) and others.

However digital photogrammetry like package make the photogrammetric become easier, faster, and simpler and besides give a low cost. Harmonizing to ERDAS ( 2002 ) , this photogrammetric technique is closely integrated into distant detection and GIS. In this survey, there will be used two sort of digital photogrammetric package known as Leica Photogrammetric Suite ( LPS ) and PHOTOMOD.

Leica Photogrammetric Suite ( LPS )

LPS can be defined as a photogrammetric package application on imagination and it besides used for pull outing information from imagination. This imagination may be come from distant detection, airborne/aircraft cameras, or ground-based cameras. LPS where normally used in natural imagination processing over the creative activity of geospatial informations merchandises for illustration 3D characteristics, Orthophoto and Digital terrain theoretical accounts ( DTM ) .

PHOTOMOD

One of the digital photogrammetric package will be used in these survey is PHOTOMOD. This package was one of first photogrammetric package where it design as off-the-rack Personal computers and developed by Racurs Company from Russia. Nowadays, this package was recognized as most popular photogrammetric package at Russia.

PHOTOMOD can be depicting as intended for remote feeling informations photogrammetric processing. PHOTOMOD besides allows in researching wide-ranging possibilities and public presentation. The advantages utilizing this package were the informations processing workflow non covering with 3rd party merchandises, It besides support assortment of input device and besides specialise in 3D accountants, and it had high degree of mechanization for the photogrammetric operation.

Chapter 3

Methodology

Introduction

There are several phases of methodological procedure that used in this undertaking. It start from informations input as Aerial Photo as a base map. Then the informations collection by set up GCP ‘s utilizing GPS and after that the informations will be process utilizing different package such as PHOTOMOD and LPS. Lastly will be the consequence and analysis where the consequence of comparing of photogrammetric package capablenesss.

Methodology

DATA INPUT

( Aerial Photo )

DATA Collection

Establish Ground Control Points ( GSP ‘s )

DATA Processing

PHOTOMOD and LPS package

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

Land control co-ordinate ( x, y, omega )

3D maps of Shah Alam

Comparison tabular array of photogrammetric package capablenesss

Data Input

For informations input, the aerial exposure of the survey country will be used. Before it can be used, it need to scan and save/ stored in Tagged Image File Format ( .tiff ) . This is because of the quality of image remind high without lose the quality of the image.

Acquisition of Aerial Photograph

Aerial exposure is the exposure that taking the image of the land from some of high place. Even though aerial exposure were present as “ bird ‘s – oculus ” position but it still non a type of maps. It has four types of aerial exposure and there are Oblique exposure, Vertical exposure, Combinations and Orthophotos.

In these surveies, the aerial exposure were developed by Department of Surveying and Mapping Malaysia ( DSMM ) . This aerial exposure were acquired in 2004. Fig. 3.1 shows the Aerial exposure of Shah Alam where it cover UiTM Shah Alam.

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Figure 3. : Aerial Photographs of Shah Alam

Constitution of Ground Control Points

Before get downing the information procedure, land control points should be cod first. From the definition, land control points is a point that been located at known location on the Earth surface which is used as the mentions on the images informations beginnings. Harmonizing to IES ( 2008 ) , the basic premiss for GCP ‘s and look into points is that should be of a quality three better than the specification, that is 0.8m RMSE for the 2.5m RMSE specification.

To set up the control point, the control points need to turn up at the mark country which easy to identified. The control point should be in unfastened infinite where there no break such as multipath. After that, the co-ordinate of the control point will be set up or detect by GPS.

Datas Processing

The information processing utilizing different photogrammetric package may be has same measure. It has assorted treating stairss which start from an orientation to have extraction from Digital Terrain Model ( DTM ) . It have three of import procedures in orientation there are Interior Orientation, Relative Orientation and Exterior Orientation.

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