With an purpose to lend to the present cognition of intercultural communications, this survey explores the cultural scheme of ghesmat and destiny in Persian and English societies. Particularly, it presents the lingual contemplations of the cultural scheme so tries to show how comparable these two cultural schemes are across the talkers of the two address communities. Datas were collected by triangulation, through ethnographic observation, film, and weblog. The collected informations were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. To execute a quantitative analysis the frequence of the scheme of destiny and ghesmat in different state of affairss in English and Persian was calculated. Furthermore, to happen out the underlying subjects of the scheme activation a qualitative content analysis and Wierzbicka ‘s semantic analysis were employed. The findings further better the cultural cognition involved in intercultural communications and discourse the sociocultural functions of ghesmat and fate cultural scheme in the address communities.
Keywords: scheme, cultural scheme, ghesmat, destiny, cultural keywords, intercultural communicating
Understanding the underlying system in the semantic spheres of different civilizations has ever been a focal point of involvement for ethnoscientists since it could show how members of a cultural group make sense of their universe ( Conklin, 1962 ; Frake, 1962 ; Werner, 1970 ) . While Wallace ‘s “ maze manner ” ( 1965 p. 280 ) , Miller, Galanter and Pribram ‘s “ programs ” ( 1960 p. 62 ) , Spradley ‘s “ regulations ” ( 1972 p. 12 ) , and Colby ‘s ‘culture grammars ” ( 1975 p. 915 ) are involved in cognition processing, a more recent and dynamic position of knowledge could be achieved through the usage of ‘schemas ‘ . Schema was considered as a set of sentences or propositions and the dealingss between them ( Schank & A ; Abelson, 1977 ) nevertheless recent connectionist theories view a scheme as a form of interaction among interrelated units ( Rumelhart, Smolensky, McClelland, & A ; Hinton, 1986 ) . Rumelhart ( 1980, p. 33 ) viewed Schemas as ‘building blocks of knowledge ‘ ; as units into which cognition is stored. Schemas could be considered as cognitive models people draw on to steer their behaviour in life state of affairss. It was believed that human behaviour relies largely on his aggregation of background cognition and experiences stored in one ‘s head.
Furthermore, when scheme are considered at a group degree as the members of the cultural group are exposed to experiences, scheme emerge through group ‘s corporate knowledge. Cultural scheme are said to be the emergent belongingss of the interactions among the members of a cultural group across clip and infinite. These schemes enable the members to believe more or less in one head ( Malcolm and Sharifian 2002 ; Rice 1980 ) . Sharifian besides declared that cultural scheme as one of the belongingss of the knowledge of a community are heterogeneously distributed across the heads of the members of a cultural group.
One of such cultural schemes could be called ‘fate ‘ scheme. The cultural scheme of destiny in general holds the position that all events in the history of the universe and in peculiar, the actions and events in each person ‘s life are determined by some forces beyond work forces ‘s control. The beginning of this scheme could be sought in Fatalism, a philosophical philosophy stressing that events are fixed in progress so that human existences are powerless to alter them. It is the belief that holds “ what will be will be, ” or what happens has to go on. Sing the impression of ‘fate ‘ , Hobbes claimed that the impression of free topic was every bit paradoxical as that of a unit of ammunition quadrilateral ( Nolan, 1967, p. 90 ) . “ Hume held that from one point of view adult male ‘s Acts of the Apostless are free, whereas from another point of view they are notaˆ¦Acts of pick are purely determined by predating feelings or motivations, every bit good as by character ” . And Locked ( 1959, p. 327 ) maintained that although people are free to move as they will, they are determined as to what they do will: “ a adult male is non at autonomy to will, or non to will, anything in his power that he one time considers of: autonomy dwelling in a power to move or to hold back playing, and in that merely. ” In add-on, being concern about the deterministic facet of destiny, Solomon ( 2003 ) delved into the impression of destiny by pulling on some plants of English literature. He tried to offer an account that why all treatment of destiny got discharged presents.
Fate scheme in Persian context could be referred to as ghesmat. It is considered as one of the oldest philosophies of Zarvanism- a fourth century religion- in which people believed in the divinity of clip. They had a steadfast belief that their life from the first minute to the last is predetermined and the divergence from it is non possible. However, by change overing Persian to Islam, the belief in ghesmat got a new colouring. In the new context, ghesmat is defined as God ‘s will in each single life. The go oning or non go oning of an event is justified by mentioning to the will of God. Furthermore, the impression of ghesmat ( or taghdir or sarnevesht- as it is referred to in Persian scholarly documents ) is explored by some Iranian bookmans ( Azadarmaki, 1997 ; Fardia, 2006 ; Taghi, 2009 ) . Heidarpour ( 2007 ) investigated Ferdowsi’s1 position on the function of ghesmat in the lives of some heroes in Shahnameh. She showed that, on one manus, Ferdowsi favored rationalism as it was demonstrated in Zal2 narrative with some contemplations of Zoroastrian beliefs about fighting in life to do one ‘s ain destiny ; on the other manus, in the narrative of Rostam and Sohrab calamity, he showed his belief in ghesmat and deterministic facets of life. However, she concluded that Ferdowsi ‘s pessimism about the universe and its personal businesss did non forestall him and human existences from their battles.
Karami ( 2003 ) , in his article, foremost was concerned about the etymology of the word ‘taghdir ‘ so he went on to explicate the consequence of taghdir on Iranian civilization and society. He concluded people use taghdir when they were non cognizant of the ground of current personal businesss. Besides he counted the advantages and disadvantages of the belief in taghdir in the society. In his book, Ringgren ( 1952 ) had a comprehensive expression on taghdir in Iranian heroic poems, ‘Shahnameh ‘ and ‘Vis and Ramin ‘ . He talked about the history of taghdir which goes far off to the clip of divinity of clip in Sasanian Empire3 ; it was believed Zarvan, God of clip, could find the destiny of heroes and combatants. He besides explored the etymology of the words which were related to supernatural forces that believed to command human lives. He showed the connexion of Eden and fate which are related to star divination. Furthermore, he argued about the function of God in fatalism. In his position, Ferdowsi did non incorporate Islamic philosophies to that of Zoroastrian but used them along each other. Sing the place of adult male toward his fate, he concluded there is still a tenseness between fatalism and God who controls work forces ‘s fate and this tenseness ne’er could be solved wholly.
However, while old surveies have provided histories of ghesmat and destiny scheme in the lives of Persian and English people in general and were largely concerned about the deterministic facets of these schemes, they have non identified the higher-level subjects contained in the usage of the scheme, therefore their maps in the societies. This survey provides both qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to supply descriptive statistics of the scheme every bit good as a thematic reading in English and Persian contexts that in combination offer a greater penetration into the extent and nature of the cultural scheme people draw on in their day-to-day conversations. Sing the above mentioned issues, present survey made an effort to look into the maps of destiny and ghesmat scheme in Persian and English societies.
2. THE Survey
As has been mentioned so far, the intent of the research is to place the function cultural scheme of ghesmat and destiny could play on the lives of Persian and English grownup talkers to foster our apprehension of cross-linguistic and cross-cultural differences. To carry through this aim natural observation, play films and a principal survey of web sites provided beginnings of informations. The description and analysis of the informations were carried out quantitatively and qualitatively. The undermentioned subdivision elaborates on methodological analysis that was employed in the empirical subdivision of the survey.
2.1 Ethnographic Observation
Ethnography is one of many sorts of qualitative research methods employed to look into the cultural behaviour of a group in of course happening, ongoing scenes ( Wolcott, 1992 ) . Scholars define descriptive anthropology as a survey that focuses on people in cultural groups, that has a holistic attack and counts insiders ‘ ( emic ) position. The research precedence of descriptive anthropology of communications is to look into the maps of linguistic communication usage in existent societal and cultural contexts ( a holistic attack ) . Furthermore, ethnographers seek to understand the communicative behaviour of people by detecting their ain ( emic ) positions as members of the local civilization and besides by admiting any differences between these insiders ‘ positions and those of foreigners. In amount, the value of descriptive anthropology lies in its close attending to the map of people ‘s behaviour in the cultural context and the holistic reading of insiders ‘ ( emic ) positions.
In footings of observation as one of ethnographic methods, Wolfson ( 1989, p. 75 ) argued that long term participant observation of a group to which the research worker belongs is “ the really best sort of informations aggregation ” and apart from easy entree, this method has got the added advantage of forestalling uneasiness in the participants of the interaction under probe, therefore get the better ofing the perceiver ‘s paradox ( Labov, 1970, p. 32 ; Wolfson, 1989, p. 690 ) . Furthermore, in order to be more successful in uncovering the lingual schemes really used in many sociocultural contexts in a given linguistic communication, more reliable informations should be collected in the context of the address event as has been done for this research among Iranian talkers.
Due to the deficiency of entree to the observation of natural informations in every twenty-four hours transition of English talkers, their informations was collected through analysing English films. Compared with other plans such as docudramas, talk shows or sketchs, films and in peculiar play include more diverse address act state of affairss taken from day-to-day life.
2.3 Web sites
Although unwritten interaction has traditionally been considered “ as portion of the romantic bequest of descriptive anthropology, that tends to handle address as more reliable than composing ” , progressively, analysis of the written texts associated with civilization has become every bit valued as the index of world. “ Rather than being seen as more or less accurate portraitures of world, texts should be seen as ethnographic stuff which tells us about the apprehension which writers have of the world which they inhabit ” ( Hine, 2000, p. 51 ) . On this history, a content analysis of web sites was done to reflect the state of affairss in which the cultural scheme of ghesmat and destiny were instantiated in Persian and English linguistic communication usage.
3.1 Ethnographic Observation
Observation was done during a period of eight months, from Dei 1388 ( Jan. 2010 ) to Mordad 1389 ( Aug. 2010 ) by the research worker and her co-workers. Data aggregation was based on an ethnographic attack that uses field observations to garner the data- a method adapted from Wolfson and Manes ‘ ( 1980 ) open uping research on the address act of compliment. A principal of 45 illustrations of ghesmat scheme were collected as they occurred in existent life state of affairss i.e. in mundane interactions among Iranian people in Isfahan with different age and educational degrees during six months. The participants were non cognizant of being observed. The cases were written down with elaborate descriptions of the state of affairs of happening, the address act every bit good as age and educational degrees of the middlemans at the clip of happening. Therefore, the observed informations could bask a high grade of internal cogency.
3.2 Drama Movies
Forty eight English play films were analyzed to roll up a principal of 20 eight state of affairss incorporating destiny scheme. The state of affairss were transcribed with attention and were analyzed qualitatively to happen some forms in the usage of the scheme.
3.3 Web sites
To look into the construct of ghesmat and destiny as reflected in Persian and English linguistic communication usage, a majority of 164 web sites were considered and 32 illustrations stand foring the contemplation of the cultural scheme were collected for the concluding analysis.
4. DATA ANALYSIS
One feature of qualitative research is that informations analysis and informations aggregation can be conducted at the same time to enable the research worker to determine the survey as it proceeds ( Huberman & A ; Miles, 1994 ; Johnson, 1992 ) . In this survey the analysis was conducted during and after the completion of informations aggregation. The informations collected from ethnographic observation, web sites and play films were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. To make so, they went through content and thematic analyses which help to build- up a image of the forms that underlined instantiation of the cultural scheme in order to supply descriptive statistics of incidence contained in Persian and English societies.
4.1 Iranian Observations and Web sites
Observational and website informations collected from Iranian talkers examined foremost in its entireness without set abouting any cryptography, and so were analyzed qualitatively to develop the subjects associating to the context of ghesmat scheme activation. Then they were transcribed onto the coding signifier. As content analysis is peculiarly susceptible to researcher prejudice ( Kolbe & A ; Burnett, 1991 ) , the informations were independently coded by the research worker and her friend whose field of survey and sociolinguistic background are the same as the research worker. Following, the consequences were compared across the two programmers ‘ end product. There was about complete understanding. The disagreements were solved after probe of the context in which the scheme had been activated. After the frequences were tabulated for each codification, the descriptions of context and content of informations were analyzed qualitatively to develop subjects. This involved changeless loops between the informations and emerging subjects to guarantee soundness of tantrum ( Schilling, 2006 ) and was by necessity a subjective procedure ( Kracauer, 1952 ) .
4.1.1 Quantitative analysis
The eight-month observations ( 45 samples ) of the Iranian conversations, 48 English films, 167 English and Persian websites all were analyzed. The most revenant content among Iranian address community were about future, matrimony and love, nutrient, sing a topographic point or a individual, game, understanding, test, business, decease and life. The most popular content among all was matrimony and love by 21 % as presented in the Figure below:
Figure 1. Schema activation contexts of ghesmat in Iranian natural informations
The following most popular class for instantiation of ghesmat scheme among the Persian is ‘future ‘ . That is when Iranian talkers are speaking about the happening or non-occurrence of an event in the hereafter, in 16 % of instances they drew on ghesmat scheme. The following really close class is ‘death and life ‘ in which people justified person ‘s decease or life by mentioning to ghesmat scheme.
4.1.2 Thematic analysis
Examination of the content of the information showed that Iranian people have a inclination to trip the scheme of ghesmat widely, in all facets of their life, from mundane eating to foretelling about hereafter. However, the most frequent subjects obtained from the analysis of observations and web sites include, first, speaking about hurting or showing sympathy about a sorrowful state of affairs, as has been stated in the undermentioned illustrations:
A 30 five twelvemonth old female talker justifies her life as:
Ghesmat-e adult male hamishe tanha-ei bode.
Ghesmat-of I ever loneliness had been
‘Loneliness was ever my ghesmat ‘ .
A immature educated female pupil says to her friend who was n’t admitted into a university at PhD degree:
Ishala ghesmat-et mi-she sale dige ghabol mi-sh-i.
If it be the will of God, ghesmat-of you ( sing-2nd individual ) go year-of another accept become.
‘If it be the will of God, it would be your ghesmat to acquire admitted following twelvemonth ‘ .
A male child loses his competition and justifies it:
Ghesmat na-bood ke barande be-sham.7
Ghesmat no-was that victor be ( subj art ) – become-I
‘It was non my ghesmat to win ‘ .
Second, the Persian community may use the scheme of ghesmat when they are seeking grounds for some unexpected events for which they can non happen a good worldly cause. It should be mentioned that if a state of affairs requires the attempts of persons, Iranian talkers believe one should first do all necessary attempts in accomplishing the end. However, if they failed to accomplish it, there should be some benefits in that. These impressions are demonstrated below:
An old aunt tells her nephew by offering him a gum she had in her bag. The gum has been in her bag for some clip, although it had good quality, she did n’t hold clip to masticate it.
In adam-sam ghesamt-e Amin bood.
This gum-too ghesmat-of Amin was.
‘This gun was Amin ‘s ghesmat ‘ .
One of Persian football participant in his Television interview about the squad that failed to win the game says:
Ma talash-e-mun-o kard-im ama engar ghesmat na-bood ke be-bar-im.
We attempt-of-our- ( Do marker ) did-we but as if ghesmat no-was that be ( subj art ) -win-we
‘We did our best to win, but it seems it was non our ghesmat to win ‘ .
A in-between aged adult male writes about his yearss:
Belakhare ghesmat shod-o tonest-im emsal jambon be namayeshgah ber-im.8
Finally ghesmat became-and can-we this twelvemonth besides to exhibition go-we.
‘Finally it became our ghesmat and we could travel to the exhibition this twelvemonth ‘ .
Person used the quotation mark below as the heading of his web log:
Har kasi ro ke dost dar-i azad bezar. Age ghesma-te to bashe barmigarde vargarna be-don AZ aval male to na-boode.9
Each one ( Do marker ) love have-you ( 2nd -sing ) freedom put. If ghesmat-of you ( 2nd-sing ) is return otherwise be ( subj art ) -know-you ( 2nd sing ) from first belong-of you ( 2nd sing ) no-had been.
‘Let one you love to be free. If she/he is your ghesmat, she/he would return back to you otherwise, know that, she/he was non meant to be yours. ‘
A in-between age adult male about remaining in his football squad says:
Agar ghesmat bashe baz jambon dar khedmat-e in tim hast-am.10
If ghesmat is once more in service-of this squad be-I.
‘If it was ghesmat I would be at the service of this squad once more ‘ .
Finally when speaking about future events, Iranian talkers frequently instantiate ghesmat schema in their address, as is reflected in the undermentioned illustrations:
A female parent who has missed her boy tells him:
Shayad-am ghesmat shod-o sorat-e mahet-o did-am.11
Possibly besides ghesmat was-and face-of moon-you ( 2nd sing ) saw-I.
‘Perhaps it was ghesmat and I saw your beautiful face ‘ .
Two acquainted households from different metropoliss are going to a metropolis in North of Iran, to Chaloos about at the same clip. Both of them are non really lament on sing each other. One old member of the household says:
age ghesmat bashe unaro to Chaloos mibinim.
If ghesmat become they in Chaloos myocardial infarction ( decl art ) see-we.
‘If it is ghesmat we will run into them in Chaloos ‘ .
4.2 Quantitative Analysis of English Movies and Websites
48 English films were either watched or their books were read to roll up 28 infusions. In add-on, 32 instances of website informations were gathered through cyberspace. The obtained informations went through the same procedure as Persian information did for analysis and codification. The qualitative content analysis of the English informations revealed some classs in which the scheme of destiny was largely activated. The classs include life & A ; decease, matrimony & A ; love, unexpected event, business, game and scientific discipline which are depicted in Figure two based on their frequences:
Figure 2. Schema activation contexts of destiny in English natural informations
As the Figure shows, the most popular class in the activation of destiny scheme is ‘science ‘ . It seems the word destiny is largely used in scientific contexts than in mundane English transitions. The following most popular class is the ascription of destiny to ‘unexpected events ‘ in which English people use the destiny scheme as an account for state of affairss such as happenstances. Marriage and love is the following class in which some ‘meant to be ‘ events sing the lover and beloved could hold happened, hence, people might happen destiny as the ground.
4.2. 1 Thematic analysis
Contented analysis shows English people use the scheme of destiny non really much in their day-to-day negotiations. However, refering the usage of destiny scheme in different contexts, two wide classs emerged. One is the usage of destiny scheme as an account and justification of ( unexpected ) events. These events could be anything from run intoing a friend to that of matrimony. Some illustrations are presented below:
A immature adult male and adult female are speaking about the matrimony of another twosome:
a ) The work forces and adult females are meant to be together. I ‘m speaking about destiny ( in Alex and Emma film ) .
A immature male child tells his female parent when his female parent ‘s ex-love accidently comes to the same hotel that she works to give a address. This event leads to their matrimony ( in Maid in Manhattan film ) .
B ) It ‘s similar destiny.
Tommy Chong, a Canadian comic, histrion and instrumentalist, in a website dramas with the function of destiny in life and provinces:
degree Celsius ) Wow adult male! It ‘s similar destiny wanted us to happen each other! … So do I know you adult male?
A immature football participant says in an interview about his entryway to a new squad:
vitamin D ) “ They recruit great endowment to happen endowment. Hopefully, it was my fate to be here. I ‘m waiting to see what the procedure brings for me. ”
In add-on, the usage of destiny and fate in day-to-day negotiations evoke an image of a topographic point, a finish to make at in future. This finish normally has negative intensions for destiny but is positive for fate. Peoples normally make an effort to accomplish their fate such as stated in the undermentioned illustrations:
When a immature miss who has failed her exam insists there is something incorrect with the test consequences says:
vitamin E ) want my fate ( in View from the top film ) .
A immature miss negotiations about how she got her life:
degree Fahrenheit ) I thought that my calling was my fate. Then I married Prince Charming and a alteration came over me… I bloomed into a happy homemaker, dreaming of le creuset, vintage, aprons and babes!
The undermentioned illustration is extracted from a golf participant narrative of his life:
g ) I started golf in 1979 at age 12 by caddiing for my Dad, but to be honest for the first six months I merely went along the Peach Melba desert. Within a twosome of old ages I knew Golf was my fate. My development as a participant was truly stilted by my desire to be the best participant in the World!
A immature male child in his web log expresses his love:
I ) You are the air I breath the ground I live you are my destiny. I would n’t be able to populate life without you. You ‘re my miss, my dream come true.
Two in-between aged work forces speaking about salvaging a individual from decease:
J ) Jo: Another attorney wo n’t be good plenty. They need you. You know how to win. You know they have a instance. And you know how to win. You walk off from this now, and you have sealed their destiny.
Kaffee: Their destiny was sealed the minute Santiago died ( in A Few Good Men film )
Besides, destiny in the significance of ‘destination ‘ as mentioned, has been used largely in scholarly and scientific Hagiographas which is a sort of modern use of the scheme in which the negative intensions have been removed but the image of finishs still exists:
K ) Destiny of Virus in Wastewater Applied to Slow-Infiltration Land.
cubic decimeter ) Production and Fate of Bacteria in the Oceans.
m ) The destiny of Africa: from the hopes of freedom to the bosom of desperation.
N ) The Fate of Katherine Carr.
4.3 Semantic Analysis
Wierzbicka and her co-workers have developed an attack for researching the cultural underpinning of address Acts of the Apostless which is known as Natural Semantic Metalanguage ( Wierzbicka, 1991 ; Wierzbicka & A ; Goddard, 2004 ) . Within this attack, cultural values and attitudes, or what they term ‘cultural books ‘ , which give rise to matter-of-fact devices, are explicated in footings of a set of cardinal significances, termed ‘semantic primes ‘ , which are alleged to be cosmopolitan. Using this attack, the subdivision tries to happen out how comparable are the constructs of ghesmat and destiny as reflected in Persian and English linguistic communication usage.
The image presented by English destiny and fate is so much different from the one presented by ghesmat in Iranian civilization. In add-on to the semantic difference, nevertheless, there is a immense cultural difference: Neither of the English words is a common mundane word, like gehsmat. “ For illustration, one can easy read a long English novel, or a volume of letters or memoirs, without meeting destiny one time ” ( Wierzbicka, 2010, p. 8 ) . But it is extremely improbable to read a Iranian novel or a memoir without coming across mentions to ghesmat.
Dictionaries frequently offer destiny or fate as the closest English word, but really the significance of destiny differs well from that of ghesmat. In add-on, English lexicons by and large failed to explicate how destiny is different from destiny. For illustration, Merriam- Webster ( 2003 ) suggests that destiny is ‘the will or principle or finding cause by which things in general are believed to come to be as they are or events to go on as they do ; destiny ‘ or Longman lexicon ( 2005 ) informs us that fate is ‘the things that will go on to person in the hereafter, particularly those that can non be changed or controlled ; destiny ‘ . However, the old lexicon of equivalent word by Charles Smith ( 1903, p. 319 ) is full of penetration:
The thought of destiny involves elements of illustriousness and immutableness. It is non applicable to common things or individuals or inside informations of life, but to its evident intent and consummation. . . . Anyone might talk of his destiny or his batch ; merely those who run of import callings could talk of their fate. . . . Fate. . . is rarely used in a favourable sense, as, ‘In going it is about ever my destiny to run into with holds ‘ . So far as a adult male ‘s status has resulted from unconscious causes, as the Torahs of the material universe, we speak of his destiny. So far as we attribute it to the ordainment of more powerful existences, we speak of his fate. Fate is blind ; fate has foresight.
Fate is a deterministic construct. It refers to things which ‘happen ‘ and it presents them as inevitable, irreversible, unmanageable and determined by earlier causes ( Wierzbicka, 1992 ) . However, this accent on inevitableness and uncontrollability is really different from what represents Iranian ghesmat. The scheme of ghesmat puts emphasis on the impression of capriciousness instead on the uncontrollability which implies ‘anything can go on ‘ . Unlike ghesmat, destiny does non propose any enigma behind the events and state of affairss but English position of empiricist philosophy and incredulity. Besides, the use of destiny in scientific discourses is common and typical. Thus a list of books titled as: 1 ) Farming and the destiny of wild nature: essays in conservation-based agribusiness, 2 ) Destiny of pesticides and chemicals in the environment, 3 ) The destiny of relentless organic pollutants in the North Sea and Oil wealth and the destiny of the wood: a comparative survey of eight tropical states. Furthermore, destiny could be determined by a individual as in the undermentioned context:
‘The captive ne’er even saw the justice who was to find his destiny. ‘
A justice can find a individual ‘s destiny but it is impossible that ghesmat or even sarnevesht could be used like that. Ghesmat has a strong divinely oriented position which English destiny or fate does n’t hold. It seems the construct of destiny is more nonsubjective, this-worldly and positive which can be used with regard to people and things whereas the use of ghesmat is limited to people. The Iranian draw on the scheme of ghesmat when they are speaking about events in people ‘s unrecorded. More specifically, Iranian people believe that when something is person ‘s ghesmat it will be the best and the most good event that could go on at that specific clip for the individual even when the event is non desirable. They recognition the fact that there might be some Godhead prudence behind the event which the person is nescient of. Thus, ghesmat is compatible with a spiritual mentality that implies an attitude of credence and surrender when an person has made all his/her attempt to make his/her end ; one should accept whatever happens to one as if it were assigned by God.
On the other manus, harmonizing to Wierzbicka ( 1992, p. 94 ) “ although the English destiny recognizes the operation of irreversible causes which to the full determine events, it does non promote the position that it is the general human status to be capable to impenetrable forces, which influence, if non form, the class of every human life. This position leads to a new cultural orientation of English-speaking Western societies ” .
The polarisation between fate which has a good deduction and destiny which has a bad one is accompanied by a restriction of fate to ‘somebody ‘s fate ‘ , whereas destiny continues to be used to mention to ‘fate in general ‘ every bit good as to ‘somebody ‘s destiny ‘ but it is besides progressively used as ‘something ‘s destiny ‘ as in the destiny of H2O pollution in the natural rhythm.
Furthermore, Wierzbicka proposed the undermentioned semantic primes to distinguish between fate and destiny:
( a ) Different things can go on to different people
( B ) Different people can make different things
( degree Celsius ) Some people can make things that other people ca n’t make
( vitamin D ) I imagine I know that person wants it
( vitamin E ) This person is non portion of this universe
( a ) Different things happen in the universe that are bad for people
( B ) These things happen because some other things happen
( degree Celsius ) If those other things happen, these things can non non go on
She besides added fate would be the lone construct which focuses on what people can make ( non all people but some people ) and in fact on what some people appear to be meant to make. As it is manifested when English people say ‘dancing is my destiny, I want to carry through it ‘ or when a celebrated golf participant says ‘golf was my fate ‘ . Besides this impression is depicted in the undermentioned English adage:
Our fate offers non the cup of desperation, but the goblet of chance.
However, the Persian construct of ghesmat has no polarisation as good and bad. It entails the possibility of the good and bad occurrence which are independent of an person ‘s will. Besides ghesmat refers to what has meant to go on to people and non to some people but to all people, as the illustration below shows:
In khone AZ aval ghesmate to bod.
This house from get downing ghesmat-of you ( 2nd sing ) was.
This house was meant to be yours.
We could explain the common people doctrine encapsulated in the word ghesmat as depicted below:
Different things can go on to people
Not because they want it
Good and bad things can go on to a individual
All good and bad things that happen are for the benefits of the individual
Used merely for people
It is non portion of this universe
It is non person like a human being
The present survey employed a incompatible analysis to research the scheme of ghesmat and destiny among native Persians and English talkers. The findings of the survey revealed that there are differences between these two scheme. It appears that Iranian talkers most likely pull on ghesmat scheme chiefly to accomplish three maps in the society, a ) to warrant ( unexpected ) events, B ) to use ghesmat scheme as a solace device when people are in hurting and degree Celsius ) to speak about future events. On the other manus, in English society, loosely talking the scheme of fate serves two maps ; a ) to explicate and warrant ( unexpected ) events similar to Iranian ghesmat, and B ) to arouse an image of a future finish. This finish normally has negative intensions for destiny but positive for fate. In add-on, destiny in the significance of ‘destination ‘ as mentioned, has been largely used in scholarly and scientific documents in which the negative intensions have been removed but the image of finish still exists. Using Wierzbicka Semantic Metalanguage ( 1991 ) , the chapter discussed the premier semantics of destiny and ghesmat.
Furthermore, in this epoch of intercultural communications, it is non difficult to conceive of state of affairss where the cross-cultural differences would take to miscommunication. Being cognizant of different cultural scheme would be of premier important. Therefore, the probe of more Iranian cultural scheme in this regard is recommended. In add-on, the hereafter surveies could research the consequence of societal variables such as age, gender, societal category and ethnicity in the instantiation of ghesmat and destiny scheme.
The present paper is hoped to do a part to apprehension of English and Persian civilizations and calls for more surveies to be conducted on the explication of scheme that embody different civilizations and linguistic communications. Surveies of this sort can foreground the differences and similarities among divergent cultural systems to heighten our intercultural competency and prevent cultural misinterpretations.