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There cannot be a continued assessment of and negative association attached to the sprouting seeds, without assessing the quality and degradation of the soil. This Evidence from the empirical analysis that confirmed responders, identified responses, and determined response effectiveness suggests responses to deforestation need greater local relevance and foci. Rather than providing support for dominant narratives of response to tropical deforestation in DRC (war-torn, impoverished, failed state), analysis of these case studies show forest loss is occurring because there is a lack of a detailed understanding of the complex set of drivers and pressures affecting forest cover changes within LTLT. Responses are controlled by the same entities that implicitly control drivers and thus very little of what is invested reaches local communities here.

This leaves communities in an environmental and economic poverty trap, practicing slash-and-burn agriculture and relying on diminishing forests returns for food security. The most salient drivers occurring in LTLT are political and economic drivers and slash-and-burn agriculture and poverty pressures. Local tandem synergies further challenge single factor causation explanations where blame was mostly placed on slash-and-burn. Rather, this analysis reveals that both drivers and responses largely fluctuate based upon national and international institutional and economic factors, e.g. both drivers and responses are controlled by national and international bodies.

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Locally, pressures causing deforestation, for example slash-and-burn, which are amplified because of poverty and forest gentrification are caused by historical, political, and economic marginalization in turn created by international and national political bodies. And, although analysis suggest that even though delivery of management in LTLT overall is critiqued as ineffective, at Lake Mai Ndombe communities expressed receiving benefits from REDD+ programing; highlighting increased success with presence on the ground. Therefore, major implications of this mixed method case study reveal the usefulness of on-the-ground presence in responding to deforestation. Since a detailed understanding of the complex drivers and pressures are poorly understood, local presence is required to inform policy responses and for intervention to be adaptive and effective.

References

  1. Achard, F. (2017). Determination of Deforestation Rates of the World’s Humid Tropical Forests.
  2. Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2873721.pdf .
  3. BioOne. (2017). Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Deforestation. [online] Available at: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052%5B0143:PCAUDF%5D2.0.CO%3B2 .
  4. Topics, Sample Papers ; Articles Online for Free. (2017). Deforestation Definition. [online] Available at: https://studymoose.com/deforestation-definition .
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