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Chelsea Airline Reservation System is a Nigerian based company, which began its operations in 1995 in the federal capital of Abuja, Nigeria. It began with local flights in nine difference provinces in Nigeria ( kaduna, Abia, Owerri, Port-Harcourt, Ogoni, Uyo, Anabara, Osun and Kogi province ) .

Chelsea Airline has received so many awards for safety, promptness, and best client service. Chelsea Airline strives to be the best and is doing itself an illustration for all other air hoses to follow.

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In 2004, Classic Airline announced its first international flight to South Africa, and in 2008, it ‘s added eight more international finishs to its paths, which include Audtralla, China, UK, Germany, Ghanna, England, Texas and Italy.

Chelsea Airline is turning and quickly going an international criterion for airliners. Due to the affordability, promptness and client service given to her client ‘s, Chelsea Airline has made a immense important in the air hose reserve industries, in that more and more people around it ‘s part are taking it, in footings of air travel to their assorted finish.

Chelsea Airline has a inactive web site which shows a small information about the company. It does non interact with the clients in anyway which is non advisable for an industry of any sort in this modern universe, where engineering is turning quickly.

Chelsea Airline reaches her client ‘s and member of the populace chiefly through point of gross revenues systems at airdromes, intelligence documents, and other media, which may be complicated because information might non be able to make everyone at the same clip and it is besides really clip consuming and inconvenient for clients.

Chelsea Airline makes usage of old version of package and hardware for its operation and there is no cardinal waiter to pull off or form the flow of information within the industry. As a consequence of this, Chelsea Airline has suffered a batch and lost a batch of money, due to hapless execution or no execution of an advanced online database and operating devices that will enable fast and easy flow of information and dealing and great client experience.

In 2005, Authoritative Airline Reservation System was able to establish a new web site that is sophisticated with all the needed engineering and equipments, which allow her clients or members of the populace to do their request online, and to interact with the system better.

1.2 BACKGROUND

The new web site has an debut of the reserve system, how it operates and carried out its maps. It besides enables her clients or members of the populace to interact with the system in their ain convenience clip, by making a forum such as FAQ, where interesting inquiries and replies are being discussed.

Chelsea Airline as a reserve system has it database that shop every record, inside informations or information of the directions, staffs, client and other. This helps in bettering the system, by cut downing the work burden of the staff.

The new system besides enables clients to do their engagement, reserves and questions ( such as clip of flight, what is require of them, the cost fee to their finish, etc ) online. When engagement, the system is able to give penchant to her members, in that they do n’t necessitate to come in their inside informations or information every bit frequently as they travel, because its provides them with ID, which contain every critical information of the clients.

Besides, the new system and database allows the direction to maintain path of every information of the company, because it is being connect to a cardinal waiter. It besides helps clients to cognize if their petition are being procedure or what phase is their petition, by given them feedback.

3. IDENTIFYING INITIAL ER MODEL

In a database their are tabular arraies and inside the tabular array will incorporate all the information in rows. An object or an event that a simple table represent is known as an entity. In order for us to make a database we must hold entities. Hence we will hold to calculate out the entities in our company in order for us to make a database and below is the full list of entities of our company.

Entity Flight

Entity Reservation

Entity Passenger

Entity Airport

Every entity consists of properties ; all entities need to hold at least one property in order to hold a tabular array in a database. An property is information that can depict an entity. Below is the list of entities with it ‘s several properties.

Entity: Flight

Property: Flight-Code, Flight-Number, Origin, Destination, Airport-code, Fare, Seat.

Entity: Passenger

Property: Passenger-ID, Name, Gender, Passport Number, Country, Email, Age, Address, Phone Number.

Entity: Reservation

Property: Passport-Number, Reservation-Code, Flight-Date, Origin, Destination, Flight-Number, Departure-Time, Ticket, Arrival-Time, Passenger-Name, Seat-Number, Agent.

Entity: Airport

Property: Airport- codification, City, Terminal, Counter.

A relationship connects two entities. It represents an of import dependence of two entities. Relationships are represented by a line, linking to two entities. A solid line is represented as a compulsory line while a flecked line is represented as an optional line. The Entity Relationship Diagram below is to demo the relationship between different informations in the air hose reserve system, and how informations from different objects relate to each other.

4.1 Entity Specification

An entity can be considered to be a category of informations. Every entity has a name, definition and a type. Each entity must hold a set of property that describe the different features of the entity.

The followers shows the criterion of how to place an entity.

Entity must hold a alone name

The entity name must non hold any relationship name

No two entity should be about the same thing

Avoid utilizing more than three word to depict an entity

Proper description of an entity must be created

Constantly look into the entity names

Do non delegate same field in different entity

Entities

Description

Airport

The entity airdrome denote the name and topographic point where the flights take off

Counter

The entity Counters represent the location or topographic point of the different flights and enables riders to cognize his/her flights counter.

Flight

It shows the inside informations of the flights and enables riders to do their pick from it.

Menu

It denotes the information about the cost fee of the flight, from beginning to its finish.

Seat

It denoted the information about the cost fee of the flight, from beginning to its finish.

Passenger

The entity riders denoted the information of the riders in an orderly mode.

Reservation

It contains the inside informations of riders that are doing reserves or about to go.

Tickets

The entity ticket signifies that the riders has wage for his/her fees

Agent

The entity Agents, represent individuals that assist riders to purchase their flights

4.2 ATTRIBUTE SPECIFICATION

Attribute specification is the application of a antecedently defined property to a declaration. An property is a piece of extra declaratory information that is specified for a declaration.

The illustration listed below shows the criterion of how to place an property of each entity.

Attribute must non hold the same name as any entity

An property is an the belongings of an entity, non a relationship

Attribute is like a piece of informations of an entity

Avoid utilizing more than three words to depict an property

The format of the property will be such as character twine, figure, day of the month, image and sound.

Below shows the symbols of the primary key and alone key of an properties

The “ # ” symbols is an alone key ( Primary key ) property

To understand what you are speaking about, you need to happen, for every entity, a value or a combinations of that uniquely indentifies the entity case. This value or combination is called the unique identifier for the entity.

The “ * ” symbols is a compulsory property

It is realistic to presume that for every case of the entity the property value is known and available when the entity case is recorded and that is a concern or an administration demand to enter the value.

Properties of “ Agent ”

Properties

Type of cardinal

Data type

Datas Size

Agent -ID

#

VACHAR

10

Name

*

Text

20

Electronic mail

*

VACHAR

30

Phone- Number

*

Number

20

State

*

Text

30

Address

*

Text

30

Properties of “ Airport ”

Properties

Type of cardinal

Data type

Datas Size

Airport – codification

#

VACHAR

10

City

*

Text

20

Terminal

*

Text

15

Counter

*

Text

20

Properties of “ Counter ”

Properties

Type of cardinal

Data type

Datas Size

Counter_code

#

Integer

10

Name

*

Text

5

Terminal

*

Text

Properties of “ Menus ”

Properties

Type of cardinal

Data type

Datas Size

Flight Fare

#

Integer

10

Code-Number

*

Text

5

Restrictions

*

Text

50

Sum

*

Number

8

Properties of “ Flight ”

Properties

Type of cardinal

Data type

Datas Size

Flight-Number

#

Integer

10

Departure Time

*

Time

8

Arrival Location

*

Text

30

Finish

Text

30

Departure Date

*

Date

8

Seat

*

Number

50

Beginning

*

Text

30

Airport-Code

*

VARCHAR

12

Properties of “ Passenger ”

Properties

Type of cardinal

Data type

Datas Size

Passenger -ID

#

Integer

12

Name

*

Text

40

Gender

*

Char

30

Age

*

Integer

3

Passport- Number

*

Integer

22

State

*

Text

30

Electronic mail

*

VACHAR

50

Address

*

VACHAR

40

Telephone Number

*

Number

11

Properties of “ Reservation ”

Properties

Type of cardinal

Data type

Datas Size

Passport- Number

#

Number

12

Date

*

Date

8

Reservation Code

*

Integer

12

Beginning

*

Text

20

Passenger Code

*

Integer

10

Flight Date

*

Date

9

Finish

*

Text

30

Flight-Number

*

Number

9

Departure-Time

*

Time

6

Ticket

*

Text

20

Arrival-Time

*

Time

6

Passenger-Name

*

Text

20

Seat-Number

*

Number

12

Agent-Number

*

Number

9

Properties of “ Seat ”

Properties

Type of cardinal

Data type

Datas Size

Seat-Numbeer

#

Number

6

Seat-Capacity

*

Number

300

Properties of “ Tickets ”

Properties

Type of cardinal

Data type

Datas Size

Ticket-No

#

Number

10

Name

*

Text

30

Flight-Name

*

Text

20

Phone-Number

*

Number

14

KEYS: A key has merely one significance in relational theory: it is a set of one or more columns whose combined values areA uniqueA among all happenings in a given table.A A key is the relational agencies of stipulating singularity.

Primary Key, Foreign Key and Unique Key

Primary, Foreign and Unique keysA are the most basic constituents on which relational database theory is based.

Primary keys: Is a key that is unambiguously indentified in a tabular array. Primary keyA is one of the alone keys defined on a tabular array, but is selected to be the key of first importance. There can be merely one primary key on a tabular array.

AA alone keyA is a key that is constrained so that no two of its values are equal. The columns of a alone key can non incorporate NULL values. For illustration, a Student figure column can be defined as a alone key, because each value in the column identifies merely one Student. No two Student can hold the same pupil figure.

Foreign keys A foreign key normally refers to the primary key of a tabular array, but may besides mention to a alone cardinal Foreign cardinal value must be alone or void or fit an bing primary key. The tabular arraies below demo how foreign keys are being recognised ;

From this tabular arraies ( Passengers and Reservations ) , Passport No is a foreign key in Passengers tabular array and a primary key to Reservations tabular array. Which means, a foreign key most appear as a primary key in another tabular array,

4.3 Relationship Specification

A relationship represents a significance dependence of two entities. It expresses how entities are reciprocally related and it exists between two entities ( or one entity twice ) . It ever has two positions and is named at both terminals. Besides represent something of significance to the concern.

Relationship can be defined as compulsory or optional, in the same manner as properties. Compulsory relationship is drawn as a consecutive line and optional relationship is drawn as circle

Mandatary:

Optional:

Several types of relationships can be defined in a database. Below are three chief groups of relationship ;

One to Many ( 1: m )

One to One ( 1:1 )

Many to Many ( m: m )

43.1 one-to -many ( 1: m ) and many-to-one ( m:1 ) relationship

In database design, a one-to-many relationship occurs when one entity has a multivalued relationship with another entity.

Book by

Brands

Description:

One Reservation must be book by one or more Passengers

One or more Passengers must book a Reservation

Relationship Type: 1: m ; Mandatory relationship

Fliess From

Hour angle

Description:

Many or one Flights take off from one Airport

One Airport has many or one Flight.

Relationship Type: 1: m ; Mandatory relationship

Includes

Involves

Description:

Many or one Flights includes Menus

Menus involves many or one Flights

Relationship Type: 1: m ; Mandatory relationship.

Many-to-Many ( m: m ) Relationship

A relationship that is multi-valued in both waies is a many-to-many relationship. It occur when each record in Table A may hold many linked records in Table B and vice-versa.

Book by

Book

Description:

Many Reservations book by many Agents.

Many Agents book many reserves.

Relationship Type: m: m ; Mandatory relationship and 1:0 ; Optional relationship.

Consists

Inside of

Description:

Many Flights consists of many Seatings.

Many Seats inside of many flights.

Relationship Type: m: m ; Mandatory relationship.

One to One ( 1: 1 ) Relationship

In database design, one-to-one relationships are a bidirectional relationship, which means that they are single-valued in both waies. In one-to-one relationship, two tabular arraies are associated in such a manner that each record in first tabular array can hold merely one matching record in 2nd tabular array, and each record in 2nd tabular array can hold merely one matching record in first tabular array.

Consists of

Involves

Description:

One Reservations consists of one Flights

One Flight involves one Reservation.

Relationship Type: 1: 1 ; Mandatory relationship.

Business Rules

All riders have to purchase or buy a ticket before doing reserves

All riders have to come in their inside informations before buying ticket

Passengers have to stipulate the figure of reserves they are booking

All flights that are in the airdrome must hold a flight codification and the undermentioned information ‘s are required ; e.g. beginning, finish, going clip, arrival clip etc.

Passenger ‘s information has to be shop in the company database for future used or in instance of contingency.

Every payment has to be receive before tickets are being issues out.

Passengers can do their payment online by utilizing ATM, MASTER CARD, CREDIT CARD and hard currency payment merely.

Passengers ca n’t alter their flight agenda.

The company has the right to alter the flight clip.

If there should be any contingency that may halt the riders from run intoing his/her flight agenda, he/she has to inform the office in progress.

When doing reserves, riders have to come in their information wholly, for better elucidation.

Every flights must be in at that place assorted counters and terminus for easy designation.

All reserves have to be made or book in progress. E.g. lower limit of three yearss or one hebdomad.

Standardization OF THE RELATIONSHIP

Standardization

It is a procedure of expeditiously forming informations in a database or change overing complex information constructions into simple, stable information construction. Normalization consists of two major grounds ;

Elimination of excess informations ( e.g. hive awaying the same information in more than one tabular array )

Guaranting informations dependences make sense ( merely hive awaying related informations in a tabular array ) .

These two methods help to cut down the sum of infinite a database consumes and guarantee that information is logically store.

RULES / STEPS FOR NORMALIZATION

Normally, standardization is explained or emphasis base on the first, 2nd and 3rd normal signifier. Normal signifier is a manner of mensurating the degrees, or deepness, to which a database has been normalised.

In standardization, each subsequent stairss taken has to depend on the old normal signifier, e.g. to normalised a database utilizing the 2nd normal signifier, the database must first be in the first normal signifier.

FIRST NORMAL FORM ( 1NF )

It sets the really basic regulations for an organized database ;

Eliminate reiterating groups in single tabular arraies

Make a separate tabular array for each set of related informations

Identify each set of related informations with a primary key.

Second NORMAL FORM ( 2NF )

It addresses all the construct of taking duplicative informations ;

Meeting all the demands of the first normal signifier ( i.e. place all functional dependences in 1NF )

Remove subsets of informations that apply to multiple row of a tabular array and put them in separate tabular arraies

Relate these tabular arraies with a foreign key.

THIRD NORMAL FORM ( 2NF )

The aim/objective is to take informations in a tabular array that is non dependent on the primary key ;

Meeting all the demands of the 2nd normal signifier

Making one relation for each determiner in the transitive dependence

Remove columns that are non dependent upon the primary key

Make the determiners the primary keys in their several dealingss.

Standardization DURING DATA MODELING

Although standardization is a relational database procedure, it is a technique that is used when planing and redesigning a database. That meant, when an entity theoretical account is being created, it harmonies to the tabular array created during design.

Standardization

UNF

1NF

2NF

3NF

Passenger

Passenger-ID

Passenger-Name

Gender

Passport-Number

State

Electronic mail

Age

Address

Phone-Number

Flight-Code

Flight-Number

Beginning

Finish

Airport-Code

Menu

Seat

Airport-Code

City

Terminal

Counter

Passport-Number

Reservation-Code

Flight-Date

Beginning

Finish

Flight-Number

Departure-Time

Ticket

Arrival-Time

Passenger-Name

Seat-Number

Agent

Passenger

Passenger-ID

Passenger-Name

Gender

Passport-Number

State

Electronic mail

Age

Address

Phone-Number

Flight

Flight-Code

Flight-Number

Beginning

Finish

Airport-Code

Menu

Seat

Airport

Airport-Code

City

Terminal

Counter

Reservation

Passport-Number

Reservation-Code

Flight-Date

Beginning

Finish

Flight-Number

Departure-Time

Ticket

Arrival-Time

Passenger-Name

Seat-Number

Agent

Passenger

Passenger-ID

Passenger-Name

Gender

Passport-Number

State

Electronic mail

Age

Address

Phone-Number

Flight

Flight codification

Flight type

Beginning

Finish

Departure clip

Arrival clip

Airport codification

Menu

Flight menu

Code figure

Restrictions

Sum

Seatings

Seat No

Seat capacity

Reservation

Passport figure

Name

Zip/post codification

Telephone figure

State

City/town

Flight codification

Payment

Ticket

Ticket_No

Name

Flight name

Telephone figure

Agent

Agent ID

Name

Email reference

Telephone figure

State

Airport

Airport codification

Name

Location

Terminal

Counters

Passenger

Passenger-ID

Passenger-Name

Gender

Passport-Number

State

Electronic mail

Age

Address

Phone-Number

Flight

Flight codification

Flight type

Beginning

Finish

Departure clip

Arrival clip

Airport codification

Menu

Flight menu

Code figure

Restrictions

Sum

Seatings

Seat No

Seat capacity

Reservation

Passport figure

Name

Zip/post codification

Telephone figure

State

City/town

Flight codification

Payment

Payment codification

Sum

Confirmation

Ticket

Ticket_No

Name

Flight name

Telephone figure

Agent

Agent ID

Name

Email reference

Telephone figure

State

Airport

Airport codification

Name

Location

Terminal

Counters

Terminal

Counter name

Counter codification

ERD OF CHEALSEA AIRLINE RESERVATION

Decision

As a consequence of the initial analysis of the information vital to concern, the initial Entity Relational E-R Model diagram was regulated. The initial E-R Model was able to place the 4 major entities of concern, the importance to Chelsea air hose reserve system.

After thorough analysis of the initial E-R Model, relationships in the initial ER Model were farther adjudicate into yet more specific entities. The concluding ER Model is organised when no more dealingss can be purposed. To look into for mistakes in the concluding ER Model, standardization is used by conveying the entities and its properties into the Third Normal Form ( 3NF ) . The 3NF corresponds with the concluding ER Model proposing that the concluding ER Model is right.

With this concluding E-R Model, Chelsea Airline Reservation System will be capable to implement an exact and efficacious database system to supply assured, dependable information to enable efficient processs of the company. With the database system enforced, staff in the office can be capable to recover information rapidly and accurately to answer client ‘s enquiries. Interchange of information will besides be faster. Overall, the successful execution will indefinitely ease Chelsea Airline Reservation System.

REFRENCE

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