2.1 Chapter Overview

This chapter presents a sum-up of the the reappraisal of literature sing the topic of design and captures assorted facets and ideas on this. Assorted ideas, procedure and research peculiarly related to the design procedure are explored. This chapter encompasses the definitions, features, treatments and applications of design. It is intended that this chapter should give some clear background on the apprehension of the design procedure and its development in today ‘s universe of design research.

While the literature reappraisal provides a utile background of current research in the stuff, procedure and RM systems, the literature available on the design facet for RM merchandises is badly limited. First a reappraisal of the literature for definition of the term ‘design ‘ is presented. A treatment of the act of planing so follows. Following, the type of cognition associated with design has been discussed. Finally, assorted ideas of procedure of design have been reviewed. This debut should supply the reader with a context for construing the staying chapters of this study. The full version of this chapter can be referred to Appendix 3.


2.2 Chapter Summary

Design is a complex activity, affecting artifacts, people, tools, procedure, administrations and the environment in which this takes topographic point. This chapter has explored and discussed the topic of design and captures assorted facets and ideas on this. Assorted ideas, procedure and research peculiarly related to the design are explored. However, the premise that there exists a set of universally accepted design procedure is an country that can be farther explored. Conclusively, design is seen as a possible but subjective procedure. This leads to different sets of reading being used by different research workers.

Whilst there may be some difference about the precise definition of the term ‘design ‘ , it is recognized as a purposeful and originative activity. In drumhead, design seeks to make things with the intent of fulfilling certain demands in new ways that improves the quality of lives. In merchandise design, a assortment of demands must be considered runing from functionality and serviceability to pleasance. However, design is more than merely interpreting a set of demands into a merchandise. Besides, and more significantly, it involves happening new demands. Therefore, design involves happening jobs and solutions at the same time, and this is where creativeness is of import.

Planing a merchandise involves a changeless determination devising procedure that includes job work outing in a consecutive manner and analysis of restraints at each measure. Merchandise interior decorators conceptualize and evaluate thoughts, doing them touchable through merchandises in a more systematic attack. The function of a merchandise interior decorator encompasses many features of the selling director, merchandise director, industrial interior decorator and design applied scientist. The function of the merchandise interior decorator combines art, scientific discipline and engineering to make touchable 3-dimensional goods. This germinating function has been facilitated by digital tools that allow interior decorators to pass on, visualise and analyse thoughts in a manner that would hold taken greater work force in the yesteryear. ( This appears in indistinguishable signifier in Wikipedia! )

A figure of formal constructions and models to better understand the design procedure have been suggested from many different subjects by many research workers. Most of them have converged upon the general signifier proposed by Pahl and Beitz ‘s. Pahl and Beitz ( 1996 ) outline a theoretical account of the design procedure for mechanical design that considers non merely the sequence of phases, but besides what the end product of each phase. They divided the design procedure into four stages that includes planning and elucidation of the undertaking, conceptual design, embodiment design and item design.

However, this research is concern with the apprehension of the design procedure for Rapid Manufactured merchandises. One of the aims is to understand how the design procedure plants and how it is learned and performed by professional and adept interior decorators. The purpose of the research is to back up the design procedure with the assistance of computing machines. Finally, this chapter has given some background on the apprehension of the design procedure and its development in today ‘s universe of design research.

Chapter Three: Computer Support Tools for Design

3.1 Chapter Overview

This chapter presents an overview of assorted tools to bring forth CAD theoretical accounts for RM procedures and the determination support systems, tools and techniques used to back up the design procedure. The full papers of this chapter can be referred to Appendix 4.

3.2 Chapter Summary

Computational tools play an indispensable function in supplying support for the interior decorator, because of their velocity and capableness for managing immense sums of information at reasonably low costs. There are assorted methods to help interior decorator to bring forth CAD theoretical accounts such as CAD softwares, change by reversal technology and tactile devices. CAD traditionally refers to computing machine tool to visualise, depict, edit and trial manufactured artifacts, which are now an indispensable portion of all fabrication and production procedures. CAD systems frequently involves more than merely forms. CAD has evolved to integrate several other applications of computing machine integrating with technology, fabrication and simulation. CAD now offers the capableness of freeform surface modeling and solid modeling operations that allows user to make about any complex geometry and exposure realistic rendered images.

Reverse technology is an of import tool to bring forth CAD theoretical accounts. To change by reversal engineer a portion, the portion is measured by a co-ordinate measurement machine ( CMM ) or a 3D optical maser scanner. The usage of contrary technology engineering non merely increases the overall truth, but besides improved the productiveness of fabrication procedure.

There are assorted countries of applications of haptics devices. In fabrication, haptics can help design for assembly and for rapid design and prototyping. In computer-aided design, interior decorators can see existent clip inside informations with their custodies, such as wanted or unwanted artifacts of a design which are hard to expose visually. It is besides possible to measure human maintainability of complex systems before they are built.

The increasing power of computing machine has lead to the development of package, tools and techniques to back up the design activity peculiarly to do design determinations. Most of the determination support tools are related to the cognition base systems or frequently called as expert system. Adept systems are computing machine plans that are derived from a subdivision of computing machine scientific discipline research called Artificial Intelligence ( AI ) . AI ‘s scientific end is to understand intelligence by constructing computing machine plans that exhibit intelligent behavior ( Boyle 1989 ) . It is concerned with the constructs and methods of symbolic illation, or concluding, by a computing machine, and how the cognition used to do those illations will be represented inside the machine. The chief features of the Expert Systems can be briefly described as: decreased determination devising clip, sweetening of job work outing capablenesss, a gaining control of limited expertness and its diffusion, an increased end product, productiveness and quality ; handiness to knowledge, ability to work with uncomplete information and proviso of preparation ( Ziemian, Crawn 2001 ) .

There are several methods used to back up the determination doing procedure such as Case-Based Reasoning ( CBR ) , fuzzed logic, Artificial Neural Network, Rule Base System and Ontology. CBR is a job work outing technique based on the version of old illustrations that are similar to the current job ( Maher, Balachandran & A ; Zhang 1995 ) . An Artificial Neural Network ( ANN ) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the manner biological nervous systems, such as the encephalon, procedure information ( Moridis, Economides, 2009 ) . Fuzzy are developed utilizing the method of fuzzed logic, which deals with uncertainness. This technique, which uses the mathematical theory of fuzzed sets, simulates the procedure of normal human logical thinking by leting the computing machine to act less exactly and logically than conventional computing machines ( Shu-Hsien Liao 2005 ) .

Rules are likely the most common signifier of cognition representation and they are present in most Artificial Intelligence ( AI ) applications such as Expert Systems and Decision Support Systems ( Obot, Uzoka 2009 ) . Rule base system uses regulations as the cognition representation for cognition coded into the system i.e. cognition is stored as regulations. Rules typically take the signifier of if – so statement.

Ontology in both computing machine scientific discipline and information scientific discipline is a formal representation of a set of constructs within a sphere and the relationships between those constructs ( Shu-Hsien Liao 2005 ) . Ontology is a system of vocabulary, which is used as a cardinal construct for depicting the task/domain cognition o be identified. This vocabulary is used as a communicating footing between sphere experts and cognition applied scientists.

On the other manus, there are a figure of choice tool for RP system has been developed since 1993 ( Masood, Soo 2002 ) . The choice of the most suited RM procedure is dependent on factors such as build envelope, truth, stuff, construct velocity and other machine related parametric quantities.

This chapter has explored and discussed the general overview of the assorted tools to bring forth CAD theoretical accounts for RM procedures and the determination support systems, tools and techniques to back up the design procedure. Assorted CAD information development systems and tool have been explored. Furthermore, assorted adept systems engineerings that support the determination doing procedure have besides been explored. Conclusively, CAD and change by reversal technology engineering are the most good known CAD information development systems. In add-on, adept systems are the most good known determination support tool that have been used for assorted applications. Having become widely used for a wide scope of applications, some elements of an expert system could be considered to hold the capableness to be a design assistance tool that could gain the DfRM tool.

In the context of design support systems for RM engineerings, due to the direct fabrication of merchandises from CAD informations, the cost and clip are low chiefly because complex objects can be generated without the usage of conventional machines. So far within the RM field small attending has been given to the merchandise design stage, accent is usually on the development of the engineering itself ( procedures, stuffs, edifice schemes, system choice, fabricating parametric quantity optimization etc ) . On the other manus the operation and picks which take topographic point during the design stage are important for the quality of the merchandise green goods.

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